NTA-NET (Based on NTA-UGC) Psychology (Paper-II): Questions 4522 - 4525 of 6630

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Passage

Psychology, as a scientific study of behavior, employs several diverse research methods to collect and analyse data. In the early phase of modern psychology, experimental method has been highly popular. The early psychologists, like Fechner and Ebbinghaus, were well - known experimentalists. Experimental method allows the active manipulation of the independent variable (IV) Ronald Fisher and other systematized the area of experimental designs. Due to the success of controlled laboratory experiments, field setting were also carried out where the IV is manipulated in natural or field settings. Especially due to the need for policy and program evaluation research, Quasi - experimental designs have also been developed. Various non- experimental methods including survey and questionnaire research, are also employed in psychology. The survey method employs interviews, both structured and unstructured, and questionnaires. Both open - end and close - end questions and scale items can be used in interview schedules and questionnaires. Different types of observations, including naturalistic observation, participant and non - participant observation, are also used in certain areas like ethology. In the qualitative research tradition, case studies are widely used. Special research approaches, for example, ethnographic research have been developed for cross-cultural psychology. In addition, psychologists use various measurement techniques including standardized objective tests, projective methods, situational tests and even physiological measures. The use of such diverse methods and measurement techniques has enriched the science of psychology as well as our understanding of human and animal behavior including the cognitive processes.

Question 4522 (3 of 5 Based on Passage)

Appeared in Year: 2015

Question

MCQ▾

Which of the following are considered as quasi - experimental designs? (June)

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Time series designs

b.

Regression - discontinuity design

c.

Non - equivalent control group design

d.

All b., a. and c. are correct

Question 4523 (4 of 5 Based on Passage)

Appeared in Year: 2015

Question

Assertion-Reason▾

Assertion(Ꭺ)

Experimental method, as compared to other methods, is more suitable for studying cause and effect relationship

Reason(Ꭱ)

As compared to other methods, experimental method permits more efficient control of extraneous variance.

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Both Ꭺ and Ꭱ are false

b.

Ꭺ is true but Ꭱ is false

c.

Both Ꭺ and Ꭱ are true but Ꭱ is NOT the correct explanation of Ꭺ

d.

Both Ꭺ and Ꭱ are true and Ꭱ is the correct explanation of Ꭺ

Question 4524 (5 of 5 Based on Passage)

Appeared in Year: 2015

Question

MCQ▾

The emic - etic distinction is emphasized in: (June)

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

ethological research

b.

ethnographic research

c.

Case studies

d.

quasi - experimental research

Question 4525

Appeared in Year: 2015

Question

MCQ▾

Partial reinforcement is considered better than continuous reinforcement because: (June)

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

the learning occurs slowly

b.

The learning occurs rapidly

c.

the extinction occurs slowly

d.

the extinction occurs rapidly

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