NTA-NET (Based on NTA-UGC) Population Studies (Paper-II): Questions 1425 - 1430 of 2302

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Passage

A hypothesis is often described as an attempt by the researcher to explain the phenomenon of interest. In their simplest forms, hypotheses are typically phrased as “if-then” statements. For example, a researcher may hypothesize that “if people exercise for 30 minutes per day at least three days per week, then their cholesterol levels will be reduced.” According to the 20th century philosopher Karl Popper, hypotheses must be falsifiable (Popper, 1963) . In other words, the researcher must be able to demonstrate that the hypothesis is wrong. If a hypothesis is not falsifiable, then science cannot be used to test the hypothesis. For example, hypotheses based on religious beliefs are not falsifiable. Therefore, because we can never prove that faith-based hypotheses are wrong, there would be no point in conducting research to test them. Another way of saying this is that the researcher must be able to reject the proposed explanation (i.e.. , hypothesis) of the phenomenon being studied. Two types of hypotheses with which you should be familiar are the null hypothesis and the alternate (or experimental) hypothesis. The null hypothesis always predicts that there will be no differences between the groups being studied. By contrast, the alternate hypothesis predicts that there will be a difference between the groups. When talking about measurement in the context of research, there is an important distinction between being accurate and being reliable. Accuracy refers to whether the measurement is correct, whereas reliability refers to whether the measurement is consistent.

In the context of measurement, both accuracy and reliability are equally important.

(NOTE: The above paragraph is taken from the book “Essentials of Research Design and Methodology” by Geoffrey Marczky, David DeMatteo, and David Festinger) .

Question 1425 (1 of 5 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

How many types of hypotheses are there in research?

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Three

b.

One

c.

Four

d.

Two

Question 1426 (2 of 5 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

Which of the following is important in the context of research measurement?

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Accuracy

b.

Reliability

c.

Both a. and b. are correct

d.

Question does not provide sufficient data or is vague

Question 1427 (3 of 5 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

Which of the following hypothesis predicts that there will be a difference between the groups?

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Null hypothesis

b.

Alternative hypothesis

c.

None of the above

d.

Question does not provide sufficient data or is vague

Question 1428 (4 of 5 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

Hypotheses based on religious beliefs are-

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Falsifiable

b.

Not falsifiable

c.

Reliable

d.

None of the above

Question 1429 (5 of 5 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

Which of the following hypothesis always predicts that there will be no differences between the groups being studied?

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Null hypothesis

b.

Alternative hypothesis

c.

All of the above

d.

None of the above

Passage

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the methodology. Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, the median or the standard deviation or chi-square, how to apply particular research techniques, but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not, and what would they mean and indicate and why. Researchers also need to understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not. All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ from problem to problem. For example, an architect, who designs a building, has to consciously evaluate the basis of his decisions, i.e.. , he has to evaluate why and on what basis he selects particular size, number and location of doors, windows and ventilators,

Uses particular materials and not others and the like. Similarly, in research the scientist has to expose the research decisions to evaluation before they are implemented. He has to specify very clearly and precisely what decisions he selects and why he selects them so that they can be evaluated by others also.

(NOTE: The above paragraph is taken from the book “Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques” by C. R. Kothari) .

Question 1430 (1 of 5 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

An architect, who designs a building, has to consciously evaluate which of the following criteria?

Choices

Choice (4)Response

a.

Any random technique suitable for designing

b.

Designs that are suitable for that particular building he wants to build

c.

Designs that other architect follows

d.

None of the above

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