Reading Comprehension-Advanced Passages (CBSE-NET (UGC) Paper-I): Questions 7 - 11 of 16

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Passage

Read the following passage carefully and answer questions:

The literary distaste for politics, however, seems to be focused not so much on the largely murky practice of politics in itself as a subject of literary representation but rather more on how it is often depicted in literature, i. e. , on the very politics of such representation. A political novel often turns out to be not merely a novel about politics but a novel with a politics of its own, for it seeks not merely to show us how things are but has fairly definite ideas about how things should be, and precisely what one should think and do in order to make things move in that desired direction. In short, it seeks to convert and enlist the reader to a particular cause or ideology; it often is (in an only too familiar phrase) not literature but propaganda. This is said to violate the very spirit of literature which is to broaden our understanding of the world and the range of our sympathies rather than to narrow them down through partisan commitment. As John Keats said, ‘We hate poetry that has a palpable design upon us’.

Another reason why politics does not seem amenable to the highest kind of literary representation seems to arise from the fact that politics by its very nature is constituted of ideas and ideologies. If political situations do not lend themselves to happy literary treatment, political ideas present perhaps an even greater problem in this regard. Literature, it is argued, is about human experiences rather than about intellectual abstractions; it deals in what is called the ‘felt reality’ of human flesh and blood, and in sap and savour (rasa) rather than in and lifeless ideas. In an extensive discussion of the matter in her book Ideas and the Novel, the American novelist Mary McCarthy observed that ‘ideas are still today felt to be unsightly in the novel’ though that was not so in ‘former days’, i. e. , in the 18th and 19th centuries. Her formulation of the precise nature of the incompatibility between ideas on the one hand and the novel on the other betrays perhaps a divided conscience in the matter and a sense of dilemma shared by many writers and readers: ‘An idea cannot have loose ends, but a novel, I almost think, needs them. Nevertheless, there is enough in common for the novelists to feel… the attraction of ideas while taking up arms against them most often with weapons of mockery. ’

Question number: 7 (7 of 7 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2014

MCQ▾

Question

According to the passage, a political novel often turns out to be a (December)

Choices

Choice (4) Response
a.

Literary representation of politics

b.

Novels with its own politics

c.

Depiction of murky practice of politics

d.

Literary distaste for politics

Passage

Read the following passage carefully and answer question numbers from below:

In terms of labour, for decades the relatively low cost and high quality of Japanese workers conferred considerable competitive advantage across numerous durable goods and consumer electronics industries (eg. Machinery, automobiles, televisions, radios), then labour-based advantages shifted to South Korea, then to Malaysia, Mexico and other nations. Today, China appears to be capitalizing best on the basic of labour, Japanese firms still remain competitive in markets for such durable goods, electronics and other products, but the labour force is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over manufacturers in other industrializing nations. Such shifting of labour-based advantage is clearly not limited to manufacturing industries. Today a huge number of IT and service jobs are moving from Europe and North America to India, Singapore and like countries with relatively well-educated, low-cost workforces possessing technical skills. However, as educational level and technical skills continue to rise in other countries, India, Singapore and like nations enjoying labour-based competitive advantage today are likely to find such advantage cannot be sustained through emergence of new competitions.

In terms of capital, for centuries the days of gold coin and later even paper money restricted financial flows. Subsequently regional concentrations were formed where large banks, industries and markets coalesced. But today capital flows internationally at rapid speed. Global commerce no longer requires regional interactions among business players. Regional capital concentrations in places such as New York, London and Tokyo still persist of course, but the capital concentrated there is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over other capitalists distributed worldwide, Only if an organization is able to combine, integrate and apply its resources (eg. Land, labour, capital, IT) in an effective manner that is not readily imitable by competitors can such as organization enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime.

In a knowledge-based theory of the firm, this idea is extended to view organizational knowledge as recourse with at least the same level of power and importance as the traditional economic inputs. An organization with superior knowledge can achieve competitive advantage in markets that appreciate the application of such knowledge. Semiconductors, genetic engineering, pharmaceuticals, software, military warfare, and like knowledge-intensive competitive arenas provide both time-proven and current examples. Consider semiconductors (e. g. computer chips), which are made principles of sand and common metals, these ubiquitous and powerful electronics devices are designed within common office building, using commercially available tools, and fabricated within factories in many industrialized nations. Hence land is not the key competitive recourse in the semiconductor industry.

Based on the passage answer the following questions: (July)

Question number: 8 (1 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

What does the author lay stress on in the passage?

Choices

Choice (4) Response
a.

Labour-Intensive industries

b.

Knowledge-driven competitive advantage

c.

International commerce

d.

Capital resource management

Question number: 9 (2 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

What is required to ensure competitive advantages in specific markets?

Choices

Choice (4) Response
a.

Common office buildings

b.

Common metals

c.

Access to capital

d.

Superior knowledge

Question number: 10 (3 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

Why labour-based competitive advantages of India and Singapore cannot be sustained in IT and service sectors?

Choices

Choice (4) Response
a.

Due to diminishing levels of skill

b.

Due to capital-intensive technology making inroads

c.

Because of new competitors

d.

Because of shifting of labour-based advantage in manufacturing industries.

Question number: 11 (4 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

How can an organization enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime?

Choices

Choice (4) Response
a.

Through regional capital flows

b.

Through regional interactions among business players.

c.

By making large bank, industries and markets coalesced.

d.

By effective use of various instrumentalities.

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