Reading Comprehension (CBSE-NET (UGC) Paper-I): Questions 18 - 23 of 27

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Passage

Read the following passage carefully and answer question numbers from below:

In terms of labour, for decades the relatively low cost and high quality of Japanese workers conferred considerable competitive advantage across numerous durable goods and consumer electronics industries (eg. Machinery, automobiles, televisions, radios), then labour-based advantages shifted to South Korea, then to Malaysia, Mexico and other nations. Today, China appears to be capitalizing best on the basic of labour, Japanese firms still remain competitive in markets for such durable goods, electronics and other products, but the labour force is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over manufacturers in other industrializing nations. Such shifting of labour-based advantage is clearly not limited to manufacturing industries. Today a huge number of IT and service jobs are moving from Europe and North America to India, Singapore and like countries with relatively well-educated, low-cost workforces possessing technical skills. However, as educational level and technical skills continue to rise in other countries, India, Singapore and like nations enjoying labour-based competitive advantage today are likely to find such advantage cannot be sustained through emergence of new competitions.

In terms of capital, for centuries the days of gold coin and later even paper money restricted financial flows. Subsequently regional concentrations were formed where large banks, industries and markets coalesced. But today capital flows internationally at rapid speed. Global commerce no longer requires regional interactions among business players. Regional capital concentrations in places such as New York, London and Tokyo still persist of course, but the capital concentrated there is no longer sufficient for competitive advantage over other capitalists distributed worldwide, Only if an organization is able to combine, integrate and apply its resources (eg. Land, labour, capital, IT) in an effective manner that is not readily imitable by competitors can such as organization enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime.

In a knowledge-based theory of the firm, this idea is extended to view organizational knowledge as recourse with at least the same level of power and importance as the traditional economic inputs. An organization with superior knowledge can achieve competitive advantage in markets that appreciate the application of such knowledge. Semiconductors, genetic engineering, pharmaceuticals, software, military warfare, and like knowledge-intensive competitive arenas provide both time-proven and current examples. Consider semiconductors (e. g. computer chips), which are made principles of sand and common metals, these ubiquitous and powerful electronics devices are designed within common office building, using commercially available tools, and fabricated within factories in many industrialized nations. Hence land is not the key competitive recourse in the semiconductor industry.

Based on the passage answer the following questions: (July)

Question number: 18 (2 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

How can an organization enjoy competitive advantage sustainable overtime?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Through regional capital flows

b.

Through regional interactions among business players.

c.

By making large bank, industries and markets coalesced.

d.

By effective use of various instrumentalities.

Question number: 19 (3 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

What does the author lay stress on in the passage?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Labour-Intensive industries

b.

Knowledge-driven competitive advantage

c.

International commerce

d.

Capital resource management

Question number: 20 (4 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

Which country enjoyed competitive advantages in automobile industry for decades?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Mexico

b.

Malaysia

c.

Japan

d.

South Korea

Question number: 21 (5 of 5 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

Appeared in Year: 2016

MCQ▾

Question

What is required to ensure competitive advantages in specific markets?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Common office buildings

b.

Common metals

c.

Access to capital

d.

Superior knowledge

Passage

Read the following passage carefully and answer questions:

Many aspects of the motion-picture industry and its constituent companies are dissimilar to those observable in advanced-technology industries and firms. For instance, company longevity does not represent a consistent concern across the two organisational contexts. In the advanced-technology company for example, one new-product innovation – which is expected to generate financial returns to the firm- is insufficient for the company to be successful.

Rather, a stream of new product innovations is required, By contrast with the independent production company of this case, each new film – which is expected to generate financial returns to the principals – is sufficient for the company to be successful. Any subsequent new films involving the firm’s participants will be produced by a different independent company.

As another instance, people’s learning is expected to have different contributors and beneficiaries across the two organizational contexts. In the advanced-technology company, for example, each new product innovation provides an opportunity for participants on the project team to learn and acquire experience, and this same company intends to retain such participants, hence, benefit from their increased experience on the next project. By contrast with the independent production company, each new film provides an opportunity for participants on the project team to learn and acquire this experience also, but this same company has little or no expectation of retaining such participants, and hence, benefitting from their increased experience in the next project.

Experience is paramount in the motion-picture industry. Generally, on film projects, budgets are very tight, and schedules are very demanding. People are hired largely based on their experience and are expected to perform well immediately when called to do so. There is negligible slack time or margin for learning through trial and error, but experienced people learn exactly through trial and error. Because experience is valued so highly and film-production house have such short time horizons, entry into the industry is very difficult for most people. Further, the role played by school and colleges is minimal in this industry. Some skills and techniques can be learned and refined through formal education (e. g. , acting schools, theatre, film degree), but the majority come through direct experience. Mentoring plays an important role. True, the film business focuses heavily on exploitation over exploration. Yet success of the industry as a whole is critically dependent upon learning and exploration overtime.

Answer the following questions:

Question number: 22 (1 of 6 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Moderately Difficult Passages

MCQ▾

Question

Why do film production houses value experience highly?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Because of the importance of trial and error methods.

b.

Because of the margin for learning.

c.

Because of short time horizons.

d.

Because it allows easy entry to everyone into the film world.

Question number: 23 (2 of 6 Based on Passage) Show Passage

» Reading Comprehension » Advanced Passages

MCQ▾

Question

What does an advanced-technology company expect from the learning experience of its participants?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Benefit for the next project

b.

Little expectation of retaining them

c.

Help in marketing the previous product

d.

Opportunity for more learning

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