NTA-NET (Based on NTA-UGC) Paper-I: Questions 3158 - 3162 of 3424

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Passage

Read the following passage and answer the questions.

What has been the overall contribution of deforestation and land use change to global carbon emissions? As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes in its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), the cumulative net addition of carbon to the earth system from terrestrial ecosystems since 1750 amounts to 30 Gigatonne (Gt) with an uncertainty of plus or minus 45 Gt. In the words of the IPCC in the AR5: “The net balance of all terrestrial ecosystems, those affected by land use change and the others, is thus close to neutral since 1750.

The key word here is net. Though cumulative emissions from land-use change since 1750 amounted to almost 180 Gt, driven largely by the more than six-fold expansion of cropland, they were compensated by the 160 Gt of absorption by existing vegetation not subject to land use change. Fossil fuel use, in contrast, contributed 375 Gt since 1750 that is more than 12 times that of the net cumulative emissions from terrestrial ecosystems.

This pattern in carbon accounting also extends to annual emissions. On an average, the Global Carbon Project reports, fossil fuel emissions currently pump about 9.9 Gt of carbon annually into the atmosphere, while land-use change accounts for 1.5 Gt. But terrestrial ecosystems absorbed 3.8 Gt. Taking sources and sinks together, they are a net sink.

For tropical forests alone, following literature cited in the AR5, annual emissions (averaged over 1990 to 2007) due to deforestation and logging amounted to 2.9 Gt of carbon, while this was compensated by carbon absorption due to forest regrowth (1.64 Gt), recovering from deforestation and logging, and carbon absorption by intact forests (1.19 Gt). As a result, overall, tropical forests were marginally a source of emissions of about 0.11 Gt of carbon per year. Clearly there is no cause for complacency here, but nor is this yet an emergency.

The alarm expressed over the current forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon, lacks a sense of proportion. Data from Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research shows that the number of fires this August, while large, is not exceptional. The year’s tally, till August 25, was 80,626, a 78 % increase year-on-year. However, in Peru it is 105 % higher, and in Bolivia 107%, both part of the Amazon basin. There are forest fires elsewhere, extensive in Africa, particularly in Angola, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, here attributed to slash-and-burn agriculture. In Siberia (three million hectares) and in Canada, both attributed to unusually high summer temperatures (this July being the warmest month ever). Brazil’s tally this year is nowhere yet near its highs from 2005 and 2010, when it exceeded 120,000 for the comparable period of the year.

Brazil has also put in substantial effort over the last decade to slow down deforestation, with some notable success, reducing it by 2013 to 75 % of its pre-2005 annual average, success that was hailed globally. It is quite likely that Mr. Bolsanaro represents a reaction to the tough measures that accompanied this effort, not only from agribusiness in soy and beef production, as has been plausibly argued, but also a large section of small farmers who found it difficult to shift from slash-and-burn to intensified cultivation. Apart from deforestation though, Brazil is by no means a high emissions country, and a model of renewable energy use from hydro power and biofuels.

Question number: 3158 (2 of 7 Based on Passage) Show Passage

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MCQ▾

Question

Consider the following statements in the passage,

I. Jair Bolsanaro played an important role in slowing down deforestation

II. Brazil’s success in reducing deforestation this decade was hailed globally.

Which of the above statements are correct?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Neither I and II

b.

I and II

c.

II

d.

I

Question number: 3159 (3 of 7 Based on Passage) Show Passage

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MCQ▾

Question

Which of the following is true about Brazil as per the passage?

1. High Carbon emission country

2. Usage of Thermal power

3. Usage of Hydro power

4. Biofuel

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

1,4

b.

1,2

c.

3,4

d.

2,3

Question number: 3160 (4 of 7 Based on Passage) Show Passage

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MCQ▾

Question

According to the IPCC in its Fifth Assessment Report, net addition of carbon to the earth system from ________ ecosystems is close to neutral since 1750.

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Terrestrial

b.

Marshy

c.

Marine

d.

None of the above

Question number: 3161 (5 of 7 Based on Passage) Show Passage

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MCQ▾

Question

Consider the following statements in the passage,

I. The tropical forests were marginally a source of emissions

II. Terrestrial ecosystems are marginally a source of emissions

Which of the above statements are correct?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

I

b.

II

c.

Neither I and II

d.

I and II

Question number: 3162 (6 of 7 Based on Passage) Show Passage

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MCQ▾

Question

By what factor have the Fossil fuel emissions contributed to the Carbon emissions compared to the net cumulative emissions from terrestrial ecosystems?

Choices

Choice (4) Response

a.

Ten

b.

Eight

c.

Twelve

d.

Fourteen

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