NTA-NET (UGC-NET) Paper-I (in English) Video Course Lecture: Reading Comprehension Passages - Arguments Based Passages (34 mins) | Lecture 41 of 84

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Topics Covered

  • Reading Comprehension » Moderately Difficult Passages

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Passage 1

The same happened in Britain with the MMR scare; public confidence in the vaccine suffered because newspapers failed to report Andrew Wakefield՚s research in context. One small study simply shouldn՚t have mattered against the broader weight of scientific evidence, fraud or otherwise; but many in the press were either too ignorant to grasp this, or more interested in juicy sensationalism than clear context.

Q. The author of the above extract would agree with which of the following arguments below?

The diet industry is built on the promotion of ignorance.

Media reports are often responsible for much of the frustration the public feels.

Assessing the state of the game from one fragment of the action is important.

In the world of science, context is king – we need more of it.

Passage 2

Most Americans eat too fast, and, as a result, they take in too many calories before they realize they՚ve eaten enough. It takes approximately 20 minutes from the time you start eating for your brain to send out signals of fullness. Leisurely eating allows ample time to trigger the signal from your brain that you are full. And feeling full translates into eating less.

Q. Which of the following strengthens the argument presented in the above passage?

My sister was always the last one to finish her meal, and it drove the rest of the family crazy.

Recent research in North American showed that overweight men and women took in more calories when they slowed their normal eating pace.

A recent Japanese study involving 1,700 young women concluded that eating more slowly resulted in feeling full sooner, and thus eating fewer calories at mealtime.

Eating desserts before main courses not only leads to eating slowly and mindfully but it also helps you eat less and enhances the pleasure of the dining experience.

Passage 3

Psychologist: Personality does not have to be rigid. In previous decades, psychologists believed that the personality traits you exhibited at an early age are likely to predict much of your behaviour as an adult. Today, times have changed. Of course, you can change some of your personality traits. It just takes hard work and effort to make big changes.

Q. Which one of the following weakens the argument made in the above passage?

Many people never really spend much time thinking about their personality traits.

Your personality influences everything from the friends you choose to the candidates you vote for in a political election.

Understanding your personality can give you insight into your strengths and weaknesses.

If you are generally a shy, quiet person early on in childhood, you are likely to remain so as you get older.

Passage 4

In theory, there are three ways of educating children who are intellectually and academically more advanced than their peers: (1) acceleration, whereby the gifted child is allowed to learn material at a more rapid pace or is promoted more rapidly through grades; (2) enrichment, whereby the gifted child works through the usual grades at the usual pace but with a curriculum supplemented by a variety of cultural activities; and (3) differentiation, whereby gifted children are accelerated or enriched within the regular classroom.

Q. The author in the passage strongly believes in which of the following arguments?

The instruction, method and materials for teaching can be adapted to the needs of each student.

Special schools or classes enable gifted children to progress at a snail pace.

In most countries, the prevailing definition of giftedness is an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 130 or above.

Gifted individuals suffer from problems such as boredom and rejection by their peers.

Passage 5

Referred to as ‘sharenting,’ also known as the act of over-posting about kids lives on social media, can be hazardous to their safety and well-being. Adults will cutely apologize to their friends and followers for oversharing, but there՚s a danger to doing so. There are certain types of photos and hashtags that predators are looking for. When those hashtags accompany those photos that doubles the risk for the child.

Q. Which of the following closely resembles the argument presented in the passage?

Child Rescue Coalition suggests that parents need not worry about posting an image of their child on social media.

The bank security specialists say identify fraud has never been easier thanks to social media.

Social media sites help get funding for children who need it for their education.

Social media is making children more aware of culture and people around the world.

Passage 6

Physiotherapist: The marriage of physio and yoga yields a movement-based treatment method that can address many different physical ailments. It can improve muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, postural alignment, body awareness, circulation, digestion, hormonal balance, respiration, and immune function, as well as strengthen bones and normalize blood pressure. The mental benefits may be part of a treatment plan too, as improving sleep, stress, relaxation and concentration can lead to long term physiological benefits, such as reduced inflammation.

Q. Which of the following weakens the argument presented in the passage?

In New Delhi, the University Grants Commission has written to all universities that yoga teaching may be included in bachelors and masters programmes of physiotherapy.

There are many physical ailments that could potentially be alleviated by traditional yoga practice.

Practising yoga regularly, for some people with pre-existing injuries, can be harmful.

Yoga is an ancient system of health that encourages you to address and nourish your body and mind.

Passage 7

The 75-year longitudinal Grant and Glueck studies led by George Vaillant and Sheldon Glueck had two main findings: 1. Happiness is love or ‘Good relationships keep us happier and healthier.’ 2. If alcoholism is not the root of all evil, it is closely correlated with it.

Q. Which of these would weaken the argument above?

72 % of the people studied have not and do not expect to consume substances such as alcohol, tobacco and weed.

75 % of the people who are extremely happy give a top box rating to the importance of success in their intimate relationships.

77 % of those extremely happy said the state of their relationship doesn՚t matter or is unimportant.

93 % of those extremely happy said they are in excellent or very good health.

Passage 8

No reports as yet of furious anti-bankers hurling bricks through business school windows. But business schools the world over are licking their wounds after being as close as they probably ever will come to being victims of a public witch-hunt. It is business schools, after all, which flooded the banking world with graduates of their prestigious MBA courses. They then helped the economy to nosedive.

Q. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

The current phase is a natural part of the cycle that the economy goes through periodically.

Something that goes up has to come down.

Expensive MBA courses produce expensive management professionals.

These MBAs are paid exorbitantly for their contribution to the economy.

Passage 9

Standardized tests are reliable and objective measures of student achievement. Without them, policy makers would have to rely on tests scored by individual schools and teachers who have a vested interest in producing favorable results. Multiple-choice tests, in particular, are graded by machine and therefore are not subject to human subjectivity or bias. 93 % of studies have found student testing, including the use of large-scale and high-stakes standardized tests, to have a positive effect on student achievement, according to a research.

Q. Which of the following, if true, weakens the argument above?

It has been observed that 50 - 80 % of year-over-year test score improvements were temporary and caused by fluctuations that had nothing to do with long-term changes in learning.

These days there is large scale commercialization of education and private schools allegedly do a lot to produce favorable results.

Instruction time is being consumed by monotonous test preparation leaving little time to learn.

Standardized tests are unfair and discriminatory, because students with diverse backgrounds and skill levels are expected to answer questions written for the white, abled majority.

Passage 10

But Anderson said that more vegetation may not actually increase warming and flood risks in the Himalayas, with the only study in the region, in Tibet, finding that the water in the plants that is evaporated through their leaf surface actually exerted a cooling influence. “We really don՚t know much about this area and we need to direct research attention towards it because it՚s a major part of the water supply story in the Himalayas,” she added. The study, published in Global Change Biology, was made possible by Google՚s new Earth Engine, which provides researchers with a freely accessible collection of government agency satellite data in the cloud. Previously, researchers would have had to build a supercomputer to sift through the enormous quantities of satellite data.

Q. Out of the following options, which one weakens the argument given in the passage?

Satellite data are the most trusted sources of data.

The Himalayan ecology is fragile and needs immediate attention and remedial measures.

Himalayan glaciers are melting at a very rapid pace.

Satellite data are prone to technical glitches and hence, the information can be misleading.

Passage 11

Miswak or Salvadora Persica is a plant whose twigs have long been used for cleaning teeth. Many companies are now using the plant՚s extract in manufacturing toothpastes and these toothpastes are very popular across the world. Such wide use of Miswak will one day make the tree extinct.

Q. Which of the following, if true, will most seriously weaken the argument?

Extract from one leaf is enough for five tubes of paste.

The tree sheds its leaves every autumn

The tree grows in the wild

The tree՚s twigs have long been used as teeth cleaner but have not made the tree extinct.

Passage 12

In economics textbooks, markets are supposed to be competitive. In reality there is growing evidence that markets are becoming ever less so. From tech to airlines to banking, the biggest companies are growing more dominant. Ownership of many firms is more concentrated. Profits have soared relative to workers pay. And executive pay has soared relative to that of workers. All this suggests modern capitalism may do more to benefit insiders than foster competition.

Q. Which of the following best summarises the argument of this paragraph?

Markets are not fostering competition and, on the contrary, benefitting a select few.

Modern capitalism needs to be more equitable so that disparity of income can be reduced.

In modern capitalism, the people at the top benefit at the expense of the workers.

Modern capitalism has not grown in the direction it was expected to grow.