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Types of Errors

  • Absolute Error Equation – The difference between the true value and the individual measured value of the quantity is called the absolute error of the measurement.

    • Suppose a physical quantity is measured Equation times and the measured values are Equation . The arithmetic mean Equation of these values is –


  • If the true value of the quantity is not given then mean value Equation can be taken as the

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Propagation of Errors in Mathematical Operations

  • Rule I – The maximum absolute error in the sum or difference of the two quantities is equal to the sum of the absolute errors in the individual quantities. If Equation and if Equation and Equation represents the absolute errors in Equation and Equation respectively, then the maximum absolute error in Equation and


    The result will be written as Equation (in terms of absolute error) and Equation (in terms

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