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Types of Errors

Absolute Error – The difference between the true value and the individual measured value of the quantity is called the absolute error of the measurement.

Suppose a physical quantity is measured times and the measured values are . The arithmetic mean of these values is –


If the true value of the quantity is not given then mean value can be taken as the
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Propagation of Errors in Mathematical Operations

Rule I – The maximum absolute error in the sum or difference of the two quantities is equal to the sum of the absolute errors in the individual quantities. If and if and represents the absolute errors in and respectively, then the maximum absolute error in and
The result will be written as (in terms of absolute error) and (in terms
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