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Disorders of Pancreas

Diabetes mellitus (DM); is the most common endocrinal disorder of pancreas. In this condition blood glucose level is above the normal range. Some of the glucose is excreted in the urine and water follows the glucose causing excessive urine formation (Polyuria) it results in dehydration of body tissues causing excessive thirst (Polydipsia). The cells are unable to utilize glucose and other carbohydrates, so they utilize proteins and fats for this

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Hormones of Kidneys

Origin; kidneysdevelop from the mesoderm of the embryo.

Hormones of kidney; kidneys secretes three hormones Renin, erythropoietin and 1, 25- Dihydroxycholecalciferol.


It is a glycoprotein secreted by the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (details in excretory system). It is an important component of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism which helps to regulate blood pressure. It is a proteolytic enzyme but its properties are like hormone.

Actions its only action is

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