ISS (Statistical Services) English: Questions 192 - 194 of 260

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Question 192


Appeared in Year: 2017

Write in Brief

One Liner▾

Use the following idioms and phrasal verbs in sentences so as to bring out their meaning clearly.

Play fast and loose – (behave irresponsibly or immorally)

Question 193


Appeared in Year: 2017

Write in Brief

One Liner▾

Correct the following sentences without changing their meaning. Do not make unnecessary changes in the original sentence

According to the Census Bureau, India will have a more problem.

Question 194


Appeared in Year: 2017

Describe in Detail


Make a précis of the following passage in about one-third of the original length, using your own words:

Two principal forms of the constitution are known to history - one is called unitary and the other is federal. The two essential characteristics of a unitary constitution are: (1) the supremacy of the central polity, and (2) the absence of subsidiary sovereign polities. On the contrary, a federal constitution is marked: (1) by the existence of a central polity and subsidiary polities side by side, and (2) by each being sovereign in the field assigned to it. In other words, federation means the establishment of a dual polity. The draft constitution is a federal constitution inasmuch as it establishes what may be a dual polity. This dual polity under the proposed constitution will consist of the Union at the centre and the States at the periphery, each endowed with sovereign powers to be exercised in the field assigned to them respectively by the constitution. This dual polity resembles the American Constitution. The American polity is also a dual polity, one of it is known as the Federal government and the other government of the States which correspond respectively to the Union government and the State governments of the draft constitution. Under the American Constitution the Federal government is not a mere league of the States nor are the States administrative units or agencies of the Federal government. In the same way, the Indian Constitution proposed in the draft constitution is not a league of States nor are the States administrative units or agencies of the Union government. Here, however, the similarities between the Indian and American Constitutions come to an end. The differences that distinguish them are more fundamental and glaring than the similarities between the two.

The points of difference between the American federation and the Indian federation are mainly two. In the USA, this dual polity is followed by a dual citizenship. In the USA there is a citizenship of the USA. But there is also a citizenship of the State. No doubt the rigours of this double citizenship are much assuaged by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States which prohibits the States from taking away the rights, privileges and immunities of the citizen of the United States. At the same time, as pointed out by William Anderson, in certain political matters, including the right to vote and to hold public office, the States may and do discriminate in favour of their own citizens. This favouritism goes even further in many cases. Thus to obtain employment in the service of a state or Local government one is in most places required to be a local resident or citizen. Similarly, in the licensing of persons for the practice of such public professions as law and medicine, residence or citizenship in the State is frequently required and in business where regulation must necessarily be strict, as in the sale of liquor, and of stock and bonds, similar requirements have been upheld.

Each State has also certain rights in its own domain that it holds for the special advantage of its own citizens. Thus wild game and fish in a sense belong to the State. It is customary for the States to charge higher hunting and fishing license fees to non-residents than to its own citizens. The States also charge non-residents higher tuition in the State colleges and universities, and permit only residents to be admitted to their hospitals and asylums except in emergencies.

In short, there are a number of rights that a State can grant to its own citizens or residents that it may and does legally deny to non-residents, or grant to non- residents only on more difficult terms than those imposed on residents. These advantages, given to the citizen in his own State, constitute the special rights of State citizenship. Taken all together, they amount to a considerable difference in rights between citizens and non-citizens of the State.

The transient and the temporary sojourner is everywhere under some special handicaps.

The proposed Indian Constitution is a dual polity with a single citizenship. There is only one citizenship for the whole of India. It is Indian citizenship. There is no State citizenship. Every Indian has the same rights of citizenship, no matter in what State he resides.

The dual polity of the proposed Indian Constitution differs from the dual polity of the USA in another respect. In the USA, the constitutions of the

Federal and the State governments are loosely connected. In describing the relationship between the Federal and the State governments, Bryce has said,

“The central or national governments may be compared to a large building and a set of smaller buildings standing on the same ground, yet distinct from each other. ” (782 words)


Dual Polity – India vs. USA

Constitutions are of two types namely unitary and federal. The characteristics of unitary constitution are supremacy of the central polity and absence of subsidiary sovereign polities. The characteristics of federal constitution are coexistence of central and subsidiary polity and each being sovereign in the field assigne

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