Cryptogams-Fungi (IFS (Forests Services) Botany (Mains)): Questions 1 - 10 of 10

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Question number: 1

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is the importance of VAM? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Meaning of VAM

  • VAM means Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal.

  • Mycorrhiza is the product of an association between a fungus and plant root.

  • Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) is a fungus and formed by the symbiotic association between certain phycomycetous fungi and angiosperm roots.

  • They help them to capture nutrients from the soil

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Question number: 2

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

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Describe the asexual reproduction in Penicillium. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

  • Penicillium is saprophytic fungus and grows on vegetative fruits, meat and many other moist.

Asexual reproduction

  • In Penicillium, asexual reproduction takes place by conidia which are developed on conidiospores.

  • Conidia are non-motile and asexual spores.

  • Conidia are produce at the tip of special, erect, hyphae called conidiophores.

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Question number: 3

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

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What is the significance of aflatoxins? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Meaning of aflatoxins:

Aflatoxin is a toxin which is produced by mold and that can damage the liver and lead to the liver cancer.

Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by two types of mold: Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

Aflatoxins are highly toxic compounds and can cause both acute and chronic toxicity in human

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Question number: 4

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

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How are the fungal toxins classified according to their source of origin? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Defining Toxins:

  • Toxins are harmful products, which are produced by living organisms, bacteria plants or animals.

  • A toxin is a product of microorganism or of a microorganism host complex, which acts on living host protoplast to influence disease development or symptoms.

  • Toxins is an injurious substances produced by organisms.

Types

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Question number: 5

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2014

Essay Question▾

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What are the different types of flagella found in fungi? (Paper A Section A)

Explanation

  • There are mainly two types of flagella;
Image showing flagella types.

Image Showing Flagella Types.

Based on cilia or hair and fibrils, flagella divided into two parts.

Tinsel type: Flagellum with a large number of hair like outgrowths (cilia) all around its surface.

Whiplash type: A long thread like structure being rigid at the base with 11 fibrils and thinner towa

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Question number: 6

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Appeared in Year: 2014

Essay Question▾

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How significant is the parasexuality in Aspergillus? (Paper A Section A)

Explanation

Definition of parasexuality or parasexual cycle:

  • The parasexual cycle is defined as a cycle in which plasmogamy, karyogamy and meiosis take place but not at a specified time or at specified points in the life cycle of an organism.
  • In some fungi true sexual cycle comprising of nuclear fusion and meiosis is absent. These fungi derive the benefits

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Question number: 7

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Appeared in Year: 2013

Essay Question▾

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Differentiate between the following: Holocarpic and Eucarpic fungi (Paper 1, Section –A)

Explanation

In fungi, asexual reproduction is predominant and is depending upon the involvement of the entire thallus or a part of thallus, the fungi may be Holocarpic or Eucarpic.

Difference between Holocarpic and Eucarpic

Table showing the Difference between Holocarpic and Eucarpic

Holocarpic

Eucarpic

In Holocarpic fungi, the entire thallus gets converted into one or more reproductive bodies.

In Eucarpic fungi, only a part of the thallus is involved in the development of reproductive organs and remaining thallus remains vegetative.

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Question number: 8

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Appeared in Year: 2013

Essay Question▾

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Discuss the following briefly: Explain the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as biofertilizer (Paper 1, Section A)

Explanation

  • Biofertilizers are the organic substances which make use of microorganisms to increase the fertility of soil. These fertilizers are not harmful to crops or other plants like the chemical fertilizers. They are actually taken from the animal wastes along with the microbial mixtures.

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the economic benefits

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Question number: 9

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Appeared in Year: 2014

Essay Question▾

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What are the diffrerent type of flagella found in fungi?

Explanation

  • Higher fungi are immovable but lower fungi have two types of flagella in their reproductive cells.

  • It may be e uniflagellate or biflagellate for example fungi of Phycomycetes reproductive cells.

  • They have two types of flagella whiplash and tinsel

    • Whiplash flagella

      • Whiplash flagella are unbranched flagella with smooth surface with a

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Question number: 10

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2014

Essay Question▾

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How significant is Para sexuality in aspergillus?

Explanation

  • Para sexuality is a genetic recombination without sexual reproduction was observed in Aspergillus nidulans by rapper and he called it Para sexuality.

  • In Para sexuality plasmogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis do take place but not in at specific time or specific point in the life cycle of fungus.

  • The phenomena Para sexuality is of common occu

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