Cryptogams (IFS (Forests Services) Botany (Mains)): Questions 1 - 9 of 44

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Question number: 1

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is the importance of VAM? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Meaning of VAM

  • VAM means Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal.

  • Mycorrhiza is the product of an association between a fungus and plant root.

  • Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) is a fungus and formed by the symbiotic association between certain phycomycetous fungi and angiosperm roots.

  • They help them to capture nutrients from the soil.

  • These fungi are scie

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Question number: 2

» Cryptogams » Algae

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Comment upon the palmella stage. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

  • Palmella stage is a type of asexual reproduction and is found in some algae manly in Euglena and Chlamydomonas.

  • Palmella stage is formed in unfavorable conditions.

  • Under unfavorable conditions, zoospores are remain enclosed with the parent cell wall and is grows in size and divided and large numbers of zoospores are found without flagella in clusters

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Question number: 3

» Cryptogams » Algae

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

With the help of labelled diagram, describe the reproductive organs of Chara. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

  • Chara is aquatic attached to muddy or sandy bottom of the pools, lakes, flowing streams and ponds of clear water.
  • In Chara, reproduction is takes place by vegetative and sexual method.

Vegetative reproduction:

Vegetative reproduction is takes place by three ways;

(1) By amylum stars: The cells of some subterranean nodes become star-shaped and very much

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Question number: 4

» Cryptogams » Pteridophytes

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Draw a well-labelled diagram through median LS of strobilus of Selaginella and discuss its main features. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Knowing theLS of strobilus of Selaginella

Knowing theLS of Strobilus of Selaginella

What are the various parts of LS of strobilus of Selaginella

  • Selaginella is unique, however, from other lycophytes in that their strobili contain two different types of spores; megaspores and microspores.

  • There are two types of sporangia in Selaginella; Megasporangia and Microsporangia.

Megasporangia

  • Megasporang

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Question number: 5

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Describe the asexual reproduction in Penicillium. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

  • Penicillium is saprophytic fungus and grows on vegetative fruits, meat and many other moist.

Asexual reproduction

  • In Penicillium, asexual reproduction takes place by conidia which are developed on conidiospores.

  • Conidia are non-motile and asexual spores.

  • Conidia are produce at the tip of special, erect, hyphae called conidiophores.

  • Many crops of conidia

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Question number: 6

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is the significance of aflatoxins? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Meaning of aflatoxins:

Aflatoxin is a toxin which is produced by mold and that can damage the liver and lead to the liver cancer.

Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by two types of mold: Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

Aflatoxins are highly toxic compounds and can cause both acute and chronic toxicity in humans and m

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Question number: 7

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

How are the fungal toxins classified according to their source of origin? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Defining Toxins:

  • Toxins are harmful products, which are produced by living organisms, bacteria plants or animals.

  • A toxin is a product of microorganism or of a microorganism host complex, which acts on living host protoplast to influence disease development or symptoms.

  • Toxins is an injurious substances produced by organisms.

Types of Toxins:

Image shows Understanding the various types of the toxins

Image Shows Understanding the Various Types of the Toxins

Understanding the various types of the toxins

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Question number: 8

» Cryptogams » Bryophytes

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

With the help of suitable diagrams, describe the development of sporophyte in bryophytes. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Development of sporophyte in bryophytes

Development of Sporophyte in Bryophytes

Understanding the development of sporophyte in bryophytes

  • A sporophyte is created by sexual reproduction of the gametophyte generation.

  • Gametophytes make haploid unicellular gametes, or sperm and eggs.

  • When a sperm cell fuses with an egg cell, this is called fertilization.

  • It creates a unicellular diploid zygote.

  • T

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Question number: 9

» Cryptogams » Algae

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is the main basis of classification in algae? Describe the important characters of various classes of algae. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

The presence or absence of pigments which transmit colour to the algae forms is the main basis of classification of algae.

Image shows Various types of algae explained

Image Shows Various Types of Algae Explained

Various types of algae explained

The divisions are based on the factors

  • Major photosynthetic pigments present,

  • Form of stored food,

  • Cell wall composition and

  • Number of flagella and position

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