IFS (Forests Services) Botany (Mains): Questions 18 - 25 of 287

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Question number: 18

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is the significance of aflatoxins? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Meaning of aflatoxins:

Aflatoxin is a toxin which is produced by mold and that can damage the liver and lead to the liver cancer.

Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by two types of mold: Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

Aflatoxins are highly toxic compounds and can cause both acute and chronic toxicity in humans and m

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Question number: 19

» Phanerogams » Gymnosperms

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Draw the LS of Pinus seed (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Image showing Pinus seed L.S.

Image Showing Pinus Seed L. S

Pinus is gymnosperms and it has a naked seed. After the gametophyte ovum is fertilized to become a zygote and the ovule becomes a seed.

Question number: 20

» Angiosperms » Pollination an Fertilization

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain what is parthenocarpy. (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Definition:

  • Parthenocarpy is the production of fruit without fertilization of an egg in the ovary.
  • In botany and in horticulture, parthenocarpy means virgin fruits mean it is naturally or artificially induced fruit production without the fertilization of ovules.

  • The fruit produced by parthenocarpy is seedless.

  • Stenospermocarpy may also produce apparent

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Question number: 21

» Microbiology and Plant Pathology » Viruses

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain the structure of TMV. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Full name of TMV is Tobacco mosaic virus.

Structure

  • The structure of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is impossible to see with the human eye because it is very small, mainly 300 nanometers long.
  • The basic components of all viruses are as much as the same.
Various types of virus & its parts

Various Types of Virus & Its Parts

  • Nucleic acid genome and a protein capsid that covers the genome and t

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Question number: 22

» Morphogenesis » Protoplast Culture

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write short notes on the following: Protoplast fusion (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Protoplast fusion is a technique by which two protoplasts are fused to form hybrid cells that can grow into mature hybrid organisms.

Methods of Protoplast Fusion:

Understanding the method of protoplast fusion

Understanding the Method of Protoplast Fusion

Spontaneous Fusion:

  • Protoplasts during isolation often fuse spontaneously and this phenomenon is called spontaneous fusion.

  • Simply physical contac

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Question number: 23

» Angiosperms » Systematics

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Describe in Detail

Give the salient features of Engler and Prantl’s system of classification and compare it with that of Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification.

Explanation

Salient features of Engler and Prantl’s system:

  • Monochlamydeous is completely put an end to and families are distributed in the large series called Archichlamydeae.

  • This Engler system dominates over all the natural system but not to the rejection of other.

  • They accept the theory of descends and threw light or the phylogeny of various groups.

  • It traces

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Question number: 24

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

How are the fungal toxins classified according to their source of origin? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Defining Toxins:

  • Toxins are harmful products, which are produced by living organisms, bacteria plants or animals.

  • A toxin is a product of microorganism or of a microorganism host complex, which acts on living host protoplast to influence disease development or symptoms.

  • Toxins is an injurious substances produced by organisms.

Types of Toxins:

Image shows Understanding the various types of the toxins

Image Shows Understanding the Various Types of the Toxins

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Question number: 25

» Cryptogams » Bryophytes

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

With the help of suitable diagrams, describe the development of sporophyte in bryophytes. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Development of sporophyte in bryophytes

Development of Sporophyte in Bryophytes

  • A sporophyte is created by sexual reproduction of the gametophyte generation.

  • Gametophytes make haploid unicellular gametes, or sperm and eggs.

  • When a sperm cell fuses with an egg cell, this is called fertilization.

  • It creates a unicellular diploid zygote.

  • This zygote undergoes many rounds of mitosis to become mul

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