IFS (Forests Services) Botany (Mains): Questions 1 - 9 of 312

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Question number: 1

» Phanerogams » Cordaitales

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

TS of leaf of Cordaites. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Image showing T.S of leaf of Cordaites.

Image Showing T. S of Leaf of Cordaites

Cordaites are primitive trees that went extinct millions of years ago. In transverse section of leaf showing various part like xylem, phloem epidermis and bundle sheath.

Question number: 2

» Angiosperms » C3 and C4 Plants

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is Kranz anatomy. (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Definition:

  • Kranz anatomy is a special structure in the leaves of plants that have a C4 pathway of carbon dioxide fixation.
  • The leaves contain a ring of mesophyll cells, containing a few small chloroplasts concerned with the initial fixing of carbon dioxide, surrounding a sheath of parenchyma cells (the bundle sheath) which has large chloroplasts inv

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Question number: 3

» Cryptogams » Fungi

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What is the importance of VAM? (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Meaning of VAM

  • VAM means Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal.

  • Mycorrhiza is the product of an association between a fungus and plant root.

  • Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) is a fungus and formed by the symbiotic association between certain phycomycetous fungi and angiosperm roots.

  • They help them to capture nutrients from the soil.

  • These fungi are scie

… (199 more words) …

Question number: 4

» Phanerogams » Gnetales

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Compare the morphological characters of male and female strobili in Gnetum. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

Gnetum is dioecious.

  • The reproductive organs are organized into well-developed cones or strobili.

  • Gnetum have male and female reproductive organs on separate plants.

  • Gnetum belongs to gymnosperms so they do not have flowers and instead of that cones or strobili sporangia bearing structure present at the tip of the axis.

Male cone or staminate strobilus

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Question number: 5

» Angiosperms » Polyembryony

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a brief and critical note on polyembryony and give its importance. (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Definition:

  • Polyembryony is the process in which the fertilization of single egg leads to the formation of two or more embryos.
  • Polyembryony is common in mango and citrus.

Importance:

  • It is importance in the formation of identical twins.

  • Formation of embryos by cells of the embryo sac other than the egg and embryo develop from additional embryo sacs in

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Question number: 6

» Angiosperms » Anatomy

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What are the salient features of the family Poaceae? (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

  • Small reduced flowers on tufted or caespitose plants with linear sheathing leaves.

  • Differing from the Cyperaceae with its round stems, hollow at the internodes and leaves 2-ranked or arranged in 2 rows.

  • Sheathing leaf bases are also often open or loosely connected to the culm and often showing a ligule at the point where the leaf blade meets the shea

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Question number: 7

» Morphogenesis » Protoplast Culture

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Briefly discuss the technique for raising haploids from microspores. (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

  • Haploid plants possess only a single set of chromosomes in the sporophyte.
  • Haploid plants are significance for the production of homozygous plants and for the improvement of plants in plant breeding programmers.

Production of haploid plants:

Understanding the production of haploids

Understanding the Production of Haploids

  • Haploids may be divided in two categories:

  • Monohaploids are the haploids

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Question number: 8

» Cryptogams » Algae

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Comment upon the palmella stage. (Paper-1, Section-A)

Explanation

  • Palmella stage is a type of asexual reproduction and is found in some algae manly in Euglena and Chlamydomonas.

  • Palmella stage is formed in unfavorable conditions.

  • Under unfavorable conditions, zoospores are remain enclosed with the parent cell wall and is grows in size and divided and large numbers of zoospores are found without flagella in clusters

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Question number: 9

» Morphogenesis » Cell

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Appeared in Year: 2015

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain Allium type of embryo sac. (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Allium is a bisporic type of embryo sac.

  • When two megaspore nuclei participate in the development of embryo sac it is known as bisporic type of embryo sac.

  • Bisporic development occurs when either chalazal or micropylar dyad undergoes the second meiotic division.

  • In Allium type, non-functional dyad degenerates and functional dyad undergoes two mitotic

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