Environmental Economics (IEcoS (Economic Services) Economics Paper-3): Questions 1 - 10 of 23

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Question number: 1

» Environmental Economics » Environmentally Sustainable Development

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Appeared in Year: 2017

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain the role of Green Climate Fund. (100W, 5 Marks)

Explanation

  1. Green climate fund, result of UN-led climate negotiations, aims to raise $100 billion a year by 2020 to assist, particularly, developing countries, and small island nations to deal with and adapt to climate change.
  2. The fund set up by 194 nations party to UNFCCC plays an important role in serving the Paris agreement signed in 2015 and supporting

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Question number: 2

» Environmental Economics » Environmentally Sustainable Development

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Appeared in Year: 2017

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What do you understand by carbon trading? (100w, 5 Marks)

Explanation

  1. Carbon trading or carbon an emission trading is market based tool used by countries to meet obligations to regulate Greenhouse gases or climate change. It is a system of buying and selling emissions as a commodity.

  2. This system of trading originated with Kyoto protocol in 1997 and is intended to reduce overall emissions to 5 per cent below 1

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Question number: 3

» Environmental Economics » Pollution Taxes and Pollution Permits

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Appeared in Year: 2010

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

What do you mean by environmental pollution? Evaluate different mechanisms to control environmental pollution.

Explanation

Environmental pollution is defined as the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected.

Mechanisms to control environmental pollution:

  • Water prevention and control of pollution act, 1974 enacted to deal with water pollution

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Question number: 4

» Environmental Economics » Environmentally Sustainable Development

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Appeared in Year: 2010

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain Schumpeterian concept of innovation.

Explanation

  • Schumpeter assumes a perfectly competitive economy which is in stationary equilibrium.

    • In such a stationary state, there is perfect competitive equilibrium: no profits, no interest rates, no savings, no investments and no involuntary unemployment.

    • This equilibrium is characterized by Schumpeter as “circular flow”.

  • In a circular fl

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Question number: 5

» Environmental Economics » Climatic Change Problems

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Appeared in Year: 2010

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain the causes and consequences of global climate change and analyze international initiatives taken under this regard.

Explanation

  • Global warming refers to an unequivocal and continuing rise in the average temperature of the climate system of the Earth.

    • Causes: The drastic increase in the emission of CO2 (carbon dioxide) within the last 30 years caused by burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major reason for the change of temperature in the atmosphere.

    • M

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Question number: 6

» Environmental Economics » Environmentally Sustainable Development

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Discuss the travel cost method of assessing the environmental value of a tourist site.

Explanation

  • It is used for calculating the economic values of environmental goods.

    • It is mainly applied for determining the economic values of sites that are used for recreation such as national parks. This method is based on the assumption that travel cost represents the price of access stand to that site.

    • Thus, people’s willingness to pay for a v

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Question number: 7

» Environmental Economics » Green GDP

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Appeared in Year: 2010

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a short note on Green GDP.

Explanation

Green GDP is a term used generally for expressing GDP after adjusting for environmental damage.

  • The System of National Accounts (SNA) is an accounting framework for measuring the economic activities of production, consumption and accumulation of wealth in an economy during a period of time.

  • When information on economy’s use of the natural

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Question number: 8

» Environmental Economics » Kyoto Protocol, Tradable Permits and Carbon Taxes

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a short note on tradable permits.

Explanation

Tradable permits are instruments aimed at reducing pollution. A maximum permissible emission rate is determined by government and permits that allow for the production of a maximum emission are issued to industry players.

Why Introduced?

Trading emissions permits was suggested by the European Union in 2002 as one of the main regulatory instrum

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Question number: 9

» Environmental Economics » UN Methodology of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

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Appeared in Year: 2010

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain the methodology of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting.

Explanation

  • The Central Framework covers measurement in three main areas:

    • Environmental flows. The flows of natural inputs, products and residuals between the environment and the economy, and within the economy, both in physical and monetary terms.

    • Stocks of environmental assets. The stocks of individual assets, such as water or energy assets, and

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Question number: 10

» Environmental Economics » Valuation Methods » Stated and Revealed Preference Methods

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Appeared in Year: 2010

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a short note on Negative externalities.

Explanation

A negative externality is a cost that is suffered by a third party as a result of an economic transaction.

  • In a transaction, the producer and consumer are the first and second parties, and third parties include any individual, organization, property owner, or resource that is indirectly affected.

  • Externalities are also referred to as spil

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