IEcoS (Economic Services) Economics Paper-3: Questions 18 - 25 of 74

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Question number: 18

» Public Finance » Theory of Public Debt Management

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Distinguish between Internal and External Public Debt. In this context, explain the debate on burden of Public Debt.

Explanation

Internal debts refer to public loans raised within the country from its citizen or banks or other financial institutions.

  • External debt, on the other hand, refers to the obligations of a country to foreign government or foreign nationals or international financial institutions.

  • In case of internal debt, the resources remain within the country; it onl

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Question number: 19

» Industrial Economics » Monopolistic Price Theory, Oligopolistic Interdependence and Pricing

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a note on Rationale of kinked demand curve.

Explanation

  • The kinked demand curve model assumes that a business might face a dual demand curve for its product based on the likely reactions of other firms to a change in its price or another variable.

    • The kinked demand curve of oligopoly was developed by Paul M. Sweezy in 1939. Instead of laying emphasis on price-output determination, the model explains the

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Question number: 20

» Industrial Economics » Market Structure and Profitability

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Discuss the different measures of market concentration. Is there any relation between concentration and monopoly power?

Explanation

Market concentration means number and size distribution of sellers in the market.

It has two measures of concentration. One is the absolute measures, which is defined as the measures based on number of firms and their percentage market share and other is the relative measures which defines the percentage share as per size distribution accounting for

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Question number: 21

» Industrial Economics » Market Structure and Profitability

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a short note on Contestable Markets.

Explanation

  • Contestable market theory is an economic concept that refers to a market in which there are only a few companies that, because of the threat of new entrants, behave in a competitive manner.

    Contestable market theory assumes that even in a monopoly or oligopoly, the existing companies will behave competitively when there is a lack of barriers, such a

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Question number: 22

» Environmental Economics » Climatic Change Problems

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Appeared in Year: 2010

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Explain the causes and consequences of global climate change and analyze international initiatives taken under this regard.

Explanation

  • Global warming refers to an unequivocal and continuing rise in the average temperature of the climate system of the Earth.

    • Causes: The drastic increase in the emission of CO2 (carbon dioxide) within the last 30 years caused by burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major reason for the change of temperature in the atmosphere.

    • More than 80 %

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Question number: 23

» Public Finance » Public Expenditure Policy and Social Cost Benefit Analysis

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a short note on Internal Rate of Return Method of Project Analysis.

Explanation

Internal rate of return (IRR) is the interest rate at which the net present value of all the cash flows (both positive and negative) from a project or investment equal zero.

  • Internal rate of return is used to evaluate the attractiveness of a project or investment.

  • If the IRR of a new project exceeds a company’s required rate of return, that project i

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Question number: 24

» Environmental Economics » Environmentally Sustainable Development

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Discuss the travel cost method of assessing the environmental value of a tourist site.

Explanation

  • It is used for calculating the economic values of environmental goods.

    • It is mainly applied for determining the economic values of sites that are used for recreation such as national parks. This method is based on the assumption that travel cost represents the price of access stand to that site.

    • Thus, people’s willingness to pay for a visiting a site

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Question number: 25

» Public Finance » Shadow Prices of Investment

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Appeared in Year: 2011

Essay Question▾

Describe in Detail

Write a note on shadow prices of investment.

Explanation

  • Shadow pricing is used to refer to either one of two things: the actual market value of a money market fund share, or, more commonly, the assignment of a dollar value to an abstract commodity that is not ordinarily quantifiable as having a market price, but needs to be assigned a valuation to conduct a cost-benefit analysis.

    In the latter instance,

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