Optionals IAS Mains Zoology: Questions 1 - 10 of 24

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Question 1

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Appeared in Year: 2015 (IFS)

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Essay▾

Describe the complexity of inner ear and its mechanism of hearing.

Explanation

Human Ear

  • Human ear is the sensory part of the body that aid in two fundamental functions: hearing and maintenance of body balance.
  • Anatomically, inner ear is the innermost part of ear in comparison to outer and middle ear. Functionally, outer ear collects the vibrations of sound from the air and extends upto the tympanic membrane, which is also know…

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Question 2

Pollution and Its Impact on Biosphere and Its Prevention
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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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What is pollution? Describe water pollution, its sources and effects on human health.

Explanation

  • Pollution is the addition of varieties of contaminants into the natural environment that cause contrary change. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.
  • Pollution can happen in any of the form or due to presence of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or lig…

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Question 3

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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Write an essay on dentition in mammals.

Explanation

Dentition is the formation and arrangement of teeth in an individual. Thus dentition in modern days can also be depicted as dental formula.

Introduction to Dentition

  • The alimentary canal of a human being or more commonly any mammal begins with an anterior opening called as mouth. Mouth opens out posteriorly through the anus. The mouth leads to buccal…

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Question 4

Pancreas and Intestinal Glands in Digestion and Absorption
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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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Functional morphology of pancreas in mammals.

Explanation

Morphology of Pancreas

Pancreas is an elongated, lobulated reddish pink colored gland serving dual role as endocrine and exocrine.

The Endocrine Portion of Pancreas
  • The endocrine portion of pancreas is composed of hormonal tissue distributed all over as discrete units called islets of Langerhans. These are about 1 to 2 million in numbers. They create …

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Question 5

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Comment on the following human genetic disorders: Down՚s syndrome

Explanation

Genetic disorder is a disease caused by change in the whole genome or a part of DNA sequences. These disorders may be due to change in one gene sequence, called monogenic disorder or due to the mutations in multiple genes at a time, known as multifunctional disorders. The damage to chromosomes (mutation) or various environmental factors are respons…

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Question 6

Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata
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Appeared in Year: 2015 (IFS)

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Write short note on: Effects of torsion in gastropods and its significance

Explanation

In freshwater and terrestrial molluscs, there is no free-swimming larval stage. Both trochophore and veliger stages are passed inside the egg and a tiny snail hatches out of the egg. Early larva is symmetrical with anterior mouth and posterior anus and gills lie on the posterior side. As the larva develops shell its visceral mass starts twisting in…

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Question 7

DNA Sequence Cloning and Whole Animal Cloning
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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Write short note on: PCR

Explanation

Introduction to PCR

  • PCR is Polymerase Chain Reaction. It is a molecular biology technique that enables to form multiple copies of specific par of DNA.
  • This technique is efficient, rapid and can generate/amplify DNA or RNA have isolated from various sources.
  • The resulted sequences are then analyzed using the gel electrophoresis, studied well by cloning…

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Question 8

Plasmids and Cosmids as Vectors
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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Explain the distinctive features of Plasmid and Cosmid vectors used in R DNA technology.

Explanation

Introduction to Vector

  • Cloning Vectors are serving as the vehicle for carrying foreign genetic material into host cell. This foreign DNA segment is replicated and expressed using the machinery of the host organism.
  • Thus, a cloning vector facilitates the amplification of required genes into many copy numbers. This process is called molecular gene clon…

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Question 9

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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What are Euchromatin and Heterochromatin? Explain the events of Heterochromatin formation.

Explanation

Chromatin

  • All the eukaryotic individuals have the DNA packaged in the form of nucleoprotein complex called chromatin material that carry the hereditary message.
  • This type of chromatin is in the nucleus on small molecules called chromosomes. Chromosomes are the highly condensed genetic material present as two pairs of sister chromatids connected at th…

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Question 10

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Appeared in Year: 2015 (IFS)

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Write short note on: Adaptations of aquatic mammals

Explanation

Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby an organism becomes better able to live in its habitat or habitats.

Deep Diving

  • Marine Mammal lungs are proportionately smaller than humans, but they use oxygen more efficiently. They fill their lungs and exchange 90 % of their air in each breath, have high blood volume, and their blood chemistry allows …

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