Social Structure [Optionals IAS Mains Sociology]: Questions 1 - 13 of 56

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Question 1

Social Structure
Colonial Policies and Tribes
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Essay▾

What evidence would you offer against the view that ‘tribes are primitive communities living isolated lives untouched by civilization’ ?

Explanation

Tribes Are Primitive Communities Living Isolated Lives Untouched by Civilization

  • ‘Tribe’ is a modern term for communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent.
  • The idea that tribes are like stone age hunting and gathering societies that have remained untouched by time is still common, even though this has not bee…

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Question 2

Social Structure
Features of Caste System
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Essay▾

Caste and class are ideological opposites. Critically analyze.

Explanation

Caste and Class

  • Caste and class are often seen as ideological opposites. Dumont for instance argued that Indian society (homohierarchicus) is based and caste while European society (homo equalis) on class. Caste is orthodox and is characterized by pessimism and is static. There is no mobility in caste. Class on the other hand is characterized by inn…

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Question 3

Social Structure
Agrarian Social Structure- Land Reforms
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Essay▾

Social consequences of Land reforms in India.

Explanation

Social Consequences of Land Reforms in India

  • Land reforms were designed to break the old ‘feudal socio-economic structure’ or rural India, to provide fillip to ‘modernization of agriculture’ and increase ‘agriculture productivity’ . So, broadly the objectives were to usher in an egalitarian society, stop exploitation in all forms.
  • Land reforms were i…

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Question 4

Social Structure
Household Dimensions of the Family
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Essay▾

Developmental phases of household.

Explanation

Developmental Phases of Household

  • Family in India has remained a vital institution and a foremost primary group because it is the sheet anchor of the patriarchal authority on the one hand, and a protector and defender of individual member՚s (including women) right to property, on the other.
  • Sociologists have argued that the traditional Indian family …

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Question 5

Social Structure
Religious Communities in India
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Essay▾

Caste among Muslims in India

Explanation

Caste Among Muslims in India

  • The caste system in India is a system of social stratification, social restriction and a basis for affirmative action in India. Historically, the caste system in India divided communities into thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called Jatis.
  • Islamic society is generally egalitarian, which stands in sharp contrast w…

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Question 6

Social Structure
Untouchability- Forms and Perspectives
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Essay▾

The social problem of ‘untouchability’ has been understood through different perspectives. Examine.

Explanation

Social Problem of Untouchability

The perspectives on Untouchability can be broadly classified into the following:

Image Shows Theories of Untouchability

Racial Theories

  • Untouchability is a racial issue. The untouchables and the untouchables belong to two different races differentiated by colour. According to Risley, the touchables were “white” Aryans w…

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Question 7

Social Structure
Features of Caste System
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Essay▾

Critically analyze M. N Srinivas conception of “Dominant Caste” .

Explanation

M. N Srinivas Conception of “Dominant Caste”

  • This concept introduced by M. N. Srinivas. The concept helps and understanding social change in rural India.
    • Numerical strength.
    • Possession of economic and political power.
    • A high place in the local caste hierarchy.
  • Possession of these three features would make a caste a ‘dominant caste’ .
  • Later on, now more f…

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Question 8

Social Structure
Untouchability- Forms and Perspectives
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Essay▾

Caste and Varna

Explanation

Caste and Varna

  • Caste and Varna are ‘two separate concepts.’ Senart, for the first time, brought out the conceptual difference between these two terms.
  • The Varna system, divides society into ‘four varnas’ (or four orders or classes) . The division is based on division of labour. It divides the Hindu society into four orders, viz. , ‘Brahmana’ , (Brah…

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Question 9

Social Structure
Family and Marriage in India
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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Show how family is distinct from household.

Explanation

Family and Household

  • Family is a social unit based on kinship, household is a brick and mortar dwelling unit. The household or Ghar is a residential and domestic unit composed of one or more persons living under the same roof and eating food cooked in the same kitchen or hearth/chulah.
  • Thus, emotional attachment is core feature of family, while comme…

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Question 10

Social Structure
Lineage and Descent in India
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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Describe the importance of lineage and descent in kinship and family.

Explanation

Importance of Lineage and Descent in Kinship and Family

  • Descent is the system of acknowledged social parentage, which varies from society to society, whereby a person may claim kinship ties with another. The practical importance of descent comes from its use as a means for one person to assert rights, duties, privileges, or status in relation to ano…

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Question 11

Social Structure
Patriarchy, Entitlements and Sexual Division of Labour
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Essay▾

Structures of Patriarchy in India

Explanation

Patriarchy in India

  • The word patriarchy refers to any form of social power given disproportionately to men. The structure of the patriarchy is always considered the power status of male, authority, control of the male and oppression, domination of the man, suppression, humiliation, sub-ordination and subjugation of the women.
  • Patriarchy leads the wom…

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Question 12

Social Structure
Lineage and Descent in India
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Essay▾

Explain the correlation between Residency and Lines of Descent.

Explanation

Residency and Lines of Descent

  • Residence and lines of descent are correlated with each other as it shows whether a particular family system is patriarchal of matriarchal system.
  • Descent is the seeking of kinship relationship in which the group of people refers their membership in a one line of common descent whether real or mythical.

Three Types of Li…

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Question 13

Social Structure
Industrial Class Structure
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Appeared in Year: 2012

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

Write short notes on the following from a sociological perspective (Each short note in about 150 words) : Industrial Democracy

Explanation

Industrial Democracy

  • Industrialization refers to the process that lead to replacement of manpower by the in-animate source of power and setting up of plants and machines which lead to mass production and commoditization of labour. Industrial class refers to strata that form due to division of work in factories. Growth of industrial classes is linked…

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