Optionals IAS Mains Sociology: Questions 498 - 503 of 503

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Question 498

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A. R. Desais understanding of Indian Nationalism is paradoxical to the Nationalist understanding of Nationalism. Comment.

Explanation

A. R. Desai՚S Understanding of Indian Nationalism

  • Search for Nationalism is not a sociological stereotype, it is a dynamic process driven by various motives, drives, speculations, contradictions & confusions in human history.
  • Nationalists like Nehru, MG Ranade, KN Pannikar conceptualize that rise of Indian Nationalism is a product of India՚s urban ed…

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Question 499

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Caste as a social capital is functional as well as dysfunctional to the society. Illustrate with examples and observations from Indian society.

Explanation

Caste as a Social Capital

  • Each and every society has its own way of stratification. An un-stratified society with a real form of equality is impossible. Indian society is stratified basing upon the caste system. The caste division is rooted in the Varna system of traditional Hindu society.
  • It was divided into four strata Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya a…

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Question 500

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Cybernetic hierarchy of control. (marks 10)

Explanation

Cybernetic Hierarchy of Control

  • Cybernetic hierarchy is the notion that social systems, like animal organisms or any complex systems, are governed by a hierarchical network of communications and regulating mechanisms, and that in social systems this means that cultural VALUES and the STATE and government play a decisive role in shaping and maintaini…

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Question 501

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Pathological forms of Division of labour

Explanation

Pathological Forms of Division of Labour

  • Before Durkheim, the concept of division of labour was studied purely from the economic perspective. Classical economists such as Adam Smith saw it as an indication of human progress. For him, division of labour increases the efficiency as specialization of people in their respective fields increases the prod…

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Question 502

Social Stratification of Ethnicity and Race
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Racism

Explanation

Racism

  • Racism refers to prejudice induced by socially significant physical distinctions. According to John Solomos, racism refers to those ideologies and social processes, which discriminate against others on the basis of their different racial membership. New Racism, refers to holding stereotypical views about those from different racial groups and…

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Question 503

Features of Caste System
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Caste as a social reality is viewed differently by Gandhi and Ambedkar. Their perspectives diverge but meet at a common end. Discuss.

Explanation

Caste as a Social Reality in India

  • The caste system in India is an integral part of a larger scheme of social organization. Gandhi and Ambedkar desired to ameliorate the untouchables from the slavery of centuries although their paths were different.
  • Gandhi wanted to bring reforms and end injustice while Ambedkar demanded rebellion for the annihilatio…

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