Optionals IAS Mains Sociology: Questions 415 - 423 of 503

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Question 415

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‘Social alteration in the institution of Marriage in India’.

Explanation

Social Alteration in the Institution of Marriage in India

  • Marriage is a social arrangement in which the individuals and groups acquire certain rights in each other.
  • With rise in Live-in relationships the marriage is no longer seen as important. Youngsters, especially in metro cities find marriage as a kind of bondage. Many of them live with their par

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Question 416

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Discuss the regional variations in kinship in North and South India with particular emphasis on rules of marriage.

Explanation

Regional Variations in Kinship in North and South India

  • According to Theodor son, Kinship system may be considered as the customary system of statuses and roles that governs the behaviour of people who are related to each other through marriage or descent from a common ancestor.
  • Marriage is a link between the family of orientation and the family of p

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Question 417

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Functions and Dysfunctions of a Reference group (marks-10)

Explanation

Reference Group

  • A reference group is a group to which one always refers to in order to evaluate one’s achievements, role- performance, aspirations and ambitions. Both membership and non- membership groups may act like reference groups. According to Robert K Merton, reference groups are of two kinds.
    • Positive reference group
    • Negative reference group.
  • Ac

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Question 418

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The agrarian class structure has undergone a change from feudal and semi-feudal to capitalist structure. Analyze

Explanation

Agrarian Class Structure

  • Indian agrarian structure has been characterized by feudal and semi-feudalism since a long time. In the pre-British era, Jajmani system was the dominant structure, which involved a reciprocal exchange of goods/services between castes, the nature of relation was of inequality and exploitation between different castes. With th

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Question 419

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Critically evaluate to what extent is the Marxian notion of alienation, relevant in the understanding of modern capitalist societies.

Explanation

Marxian Notion of Alienation and Modern Capitalist Societies

  • Alienation literally means separation from. Marx’s theory of alienation is about the loss of human power in societies, the way in which a particular type of social organization alienates us from our social world.
  • Marx believed that a capitalist infrastructure inevitably produced a high leve

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Question 420

Self and Identity
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The “development of the individual’s self, and of his self- consciousness within the field of his experience” is pre-eminently social. Discuss in context of G. H Mead.

Explanation

G. H Mead and Development of the Individual’s Self

  • In Mind, Self and Society Mead describes how the individual mind and self, arises out of the social process. Instead of approaching human experience in terms of individual psychology, Mead analyses experience from the “standpoint of communication as essential to the social order. ” Individual psycho

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Question 421

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Parsons views of the nature and application of power in society are naïve. Comment Critically.

Explanation

Parsons Views of Nature and Application of Power in Society

  • Talcott Parson defines power as the generalized capacity to serve the performance of binding obligations by units in a system of collective organization when the obligations are legitimised with reference to their bearing on collective goal. Thus, power is the ability for society to achieve

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Question 422

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Write a short note on informal sector and condition of employment in India. (marks-10)

Explanation

Informal Sector and Condition of Employment in India

  • The term Informal Sector was coined by Social Anthropologist, Keith Hart in 1971. The Informal Sector has small scale of operation in terms of capital and labour, workers are employed in small scale industries or are wage earners in non-farm activities, or have private or family ownership.
  • It is la

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Question 423

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Is social change evolutionary or revolutionary? Discuss this statement in context of Marxian and Parsonian idea of social change.

Explanation

Social Change Evolutionary or Revolutionary

  • Social change is the alteration in patterns of social structure, social institutions, and social behaviour over time.
  • Social change can vary in its scope and in speed. We can talk of small scale or large scale changes.
  • Social change is a value-neutral term, in the sense that the sociologists do not study soc

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