Optionals IAS Mains Sociology: Questions 260 - 268 of 503

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Question 260

Features of Caste System
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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Has caste system hindered democracy and adult franchise in India? Discuss. (Paper -II)

Explanation

Caste System, Democracy and Adult Franchise in India

  • “India’s destiny not ‘caste’ in stone” is advocated by Andre Beteille, meaning that “caste in fact is dying down, and that it lives mostly in the consciousness, and that this is a result of the manipulations of the media during elections. ”
  • Beteille’s main contention is that Universal adult franchi

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Question 261

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

How have social reform movements in colonial India contributed to modernization of Indian society? (Paper -II)

Explanation

Social Reform Movements in Colonial India

  • Social reforms are gradual changes in the social aspects of society, which generally involve the improvement in position of the marginalised parts of society. Social reforms movements seek to change the social and political views of the marginalised groups and of the society at large.
  • In India, social reforms

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Question 262

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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Essay▾

Give a brief evaluation of ‘Critical ethnography’.

Explanation

Critical Ethnography

  • Critical ethnography is a relatively recent development in social science research methodology. Situated within the broad ethnographic tradition, it reflects many of the characteristics of conventional ethnography. It applies a critical theory based approach to ethnography.
  • Critical ethnography is influenced from both anthropolog

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Question 263

Untouchability- Forms and Perspectives
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Essay▾

Compare and contrast the perspective of Andre Beteille and M. N. Srinivas with respect to ‘study of caste’.

Explanation

Perspective of Andre Beteille and M. N. Srinivas w. r. t ‘Study of Caste’

  • M. N. Srinivas: He initiated a new line of structural functional perspective in the study of Indian society.
  • He studied empirically the caste system through his study of Rampura village and developed the concept of dominant caste.
  • He described the caste system in two different w

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Question 264

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Essay▾

Variable-sum concept of power

Explanation

Variable Sum Concept of Power

  • According to Weber, Power refers to the “chance of a man to realize his will in a communal action even against the resistance of others who are participating in the action”.
  • One of the major implications of Weber’s definition is that “power-holders will tend to use power to further their own interests”. Power is used to

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Question 265

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Briefly discuss the theory of “cultural lag”.

Explanation

Theory of Cultural Lag

  • The term cultural lag refers to the “notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag”.
  • Ogburn believed that material and non-material cultures change in different ways. Change in material culture has a marked progressive character. This is

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Question 266

Problems of Religious Minorities
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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Discuss the problems of religious minorities in India. (Paper -II)

Explanation

Problems of Religious Minorities in India

  • Arnold Rose, defines minority as ‘a group of people differentiated from others in the same society by race, nationality, religion or language, who think of themselves as differentiated group and are thought of by others as a differentiated group with negative connotations. Further, they are relatively lackin

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Question 267

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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What are the problems of ageing population? Describe the declining traditional social support system for the aged. Suggest alternative measures to support ageing population. (Paper -II)

Explanation

Ageing Population

  • Ageing is a process whereby the proportion of children in the population decreases and those of old persons increase. Ageing is a continuous, irreversible, universal process, which starts from conception till the death of an individual. However, the age at which one’s productive contribution declines and one tends to be economicall

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Question 268

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Write short notes with sociological perspective on the following in not more than 0 words each: -

Critically evaluate Louis Dumont’s Homo Hierarchicus. (Paper -II)

Explanation

Louis Dumont’s Homo Hierarchicus

  • Louis Dumont in ‘Homo Hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications’ has given a well formulated theory on the caste system in India. In his seminal work, he argues that ‘values or ideologies ‘provide the basis of social organization of any society. According to him however, the ‘values or ideologies’ of tradit

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