Optionals IAS Mains Sociology: Questions 226 - 233 of 503

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Question 226

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Distinguish between the following:

Marriage as sacrament and marriage as contract.

Or

Compare the north Indian kinship System with the South Indian kinship system. (Paper - II)

Explanation

Marriage as Sacrament and Marriage as Contract

  • According to Theodor son, Kinship system may be considered as “the customary system of statuses and roles that governs the behaviour of people who are related to each other through marriage or descent from a common ancestor” .
  • Marriage is a link between the family of orientation and the family of procrea…

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Question 227

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Answer the following questions in not more than 0 words each:

Distinguish between formal and informal sectors in India. (Paper-II)

Explanation

Formal and Informal Sectors in India

  • According to Amitai Etzioni, ‘Our society is an organizational society’ . Organizations are different from other social units like family, kinship, friends etc. and organizations are social units which have specific objectives and goals to achieve.
  • Organizations existed in one form or another since time immemorial…

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Question 228

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Write notes on the following. Your answer should have a sociological perspective. (Maximum length of answers: 100 words each)

Sex Ratio (Paper-II)

Explanation

Sex Ratio

  • The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population.
  • Historically, the sex ratio has been slightly in favour of females. In last two decades, the sex ratio in India has increased from 927 in 1991 to 940 in 11.
  • However, the disturbing trend is that the Child Sex ratio has declined consistently to all time low at 918 fe…

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Question 229

Issues of Integration and Autonomy
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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Answer the following questions in not more than 0 words each:

Write a note on ethnicity and integration in the context of tribes. (Paper-II)

Explanation

Ethnicity and Integration in the Context of Tribes

  • Ethnicity is defined as a collectivity of people of a distinct nature in term of race, descent and culture. Tribes are largely homogeneous group with very little functional interdependence. Culturally tribe communities tend to be distinctive, often with a dialect of its own.
  • Janardan Rao while discus…

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Question 230

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Essay▾

Broadly compare the kinship system of North and South India. (Paper-II)

Explanation

Kinship System

  • Kinship system refers to a set of persons recognized as relatives either by virtue of a blood relationship or by virtue of a marriage relationship. Kinship in India can be analyzed within family separately as well as in terms of a nexus between the two. Kinship within family would include ‘primary relatives’ with the focus on intra-fa…

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Question 231

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Examine the role of civil society in reinforcing democracy. (Marks-20)

Explanation

Role of Civil Society in Reinforcing Democracy

  • Civil society encompasses all the organizations and associations that exist outside the state including political parties and the market oriented organizations. Non-governmental organizations, labor unions, professional associations, chambers of commerce, ethnic associations, religious organizations, st…

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Question 232

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Disintegration of Jajmani system

Explanation

Jajmani System

  • Jajmani system refers to the interaction between multiple castes at the village level, which helps maintain and regulate the division of labour, and leads to economic inter-dependence of caste (Edmund Leach) .
  • William Wiser argues that jajmani system serves to maintain the Indian village as a self-sufficient community. Further to this,…

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Question 233

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Essay▾

Material and non-material social facts. (Marks-20)

Explanation

Material and Non-Material Social Facts

  • Durkheim defined social facts as ways of acting, thinking and feeling, which are external to the individual, and endowed with a power of coercion, by reason of which they control the individual.
  • Durkheim defined social facts to differentiate Sociology from psychology, and to establish Sociology as a separate sci…

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