Optionals IAS Mains Sociology: Questions 207 - 217 of 503

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Question 207

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Define patriarchy. How does patriarchy manifest in interpersonal relations? (Paper-1)

Explanation

Patriarchy and Interpersonal Relations

  • Patriarchal system in India operates at multiple levels. In West, position of women is often expressed in economic terms through indicators like employment, decision making on financial matters, ownership rights, and economic status and so on. In India, many other dimensions like – rituals, kinship, social role…

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Question 208

Illiteracy and Disparities in Education
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Gender disparities in education

Explanation

Gender Disparities in Education

  • Education has been a very important part of Indian social and cultural life from the earliest times. But in a society as deeply stratified as India, disparities in education can be observed through various distributions, such as caste, religion and gender, among others. It is interesting, however, that even within suc…

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Question 209

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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What are variables? Discuss their role in experimental research.

Explanation

Variables

  • Variables are an important aspect of any experimental research.
  • Variables are the attributes of objects, events, things and beings which can be measured e. g. : Income, Education.
  • Variables are therefore, empirical properties that can take two or more values.
  • They are defined as characteristics that are manipulated, controlled or observed by …

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Question 210

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Discuss the regional variations of kinship system in Indian society.

Explanation

Regional Variations and Kinship System in Indian Society

  • According to Theodor son, Kinship sate an e considered as the customer sate of statuses ad roles that governs the behavior of people who are related to each other through marriage or descent from aestor. Kinship relations are functional for society in 2 ways: it characterises every relationshi…

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Question 211

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Explain the correlation between Residency and Lines of Descent.

Explanation

Residency and Lines of Descent

  • Residence and lines of descent are correlated with each other as it shows whether a particular family system is patriarchal of matriarchal system.
  • Descent is the seeking of kinship relationship in which the group of people refers their membership in a one line of common descent whether real or mythical.

Three Types of Li…

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Question 212

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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Distinguish between Political Parties and Pressure Groups.

Explanation

Political Parties and Pressure Groups

  • Pressure groups and political parties greatly resemble each other. Both of them are channels through which public can communicate with the government. Prima facie, both of them carry out representation, facilitate political participation and contribute to the policy process. However, in reality, groups and parti…

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Question 213

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Critical ethnography (Paper-2)

Explanation

Ethnography

  • Ethnography is described by Geoff Payne and Judy Payne as the production of highly detailed accounts of how people in a social setting lead their lives based upon systematic and long term observation of, and conversation with, informants. ″
  • It can take various forms and is used by sociologists of different types. It is widely used by symb…

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Question 214

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Appeared in Year: 2013

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Critically examine the cultural theories of social change with suitable examples.

Explanation

Cultural Theories of Social Change

  • Cultural lag refers to the phenomenon that occurs when changes in material culture occur before or at a faster rate than the changes in non-material culture. In other words, cultural lag is when technological change, or something similar like tools, develops faster than society can process those changes.
  • The concept…

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Question 215

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Write a short note on “comparative method in sociology” . (Paper-2)

Explanation

Comparative Method in Sociology

  • Comparative method is a well-tested method of investigation used in Sociology. This method is as old as Aristotle for it is known that he had made use of this method in his study of political systems.
  • But it became ″ the method par excellence of sociology ′ only in the 19th century. Sociologists and social investigator…

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Question 216

Historical Materialism
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Appeared in Year: 2013

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Analyze the salient features of historical materialism. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Salient Features of Historical Materialism

Historical Materialism

  • Historical materialism is Karl Marx՚s ‘scientific theory of society’ .
  • It is an important ′ analytical tool ′ in understanding the origin and progress of human society. It is regarded as ′ historical ′ because Karl Marx has traced the evolution of human societies from one stage to anoth…

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Question 217

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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How can we use reference group theory to understand fashion in society? (Paper-1)

Explanation

Reference Group Theory and Fashion in Society

  • Reference group refers to an individual or a group, which individuals take as a point of reference to evaluate his or her own situations or conduct. According to Robert K Merton, reference groups are of two kinds.
    • Positive reference group
    • Negative reference group.
  • According to Merton, positive reference gro…

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