Optionals IAS Mains Sociology: Questions 179 - 186 of 503

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Question 179

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Appeared in Year: 2013

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Is religion antithetical to science? Comment (Paper-1)

Explanation

Religion and Science

  • Religion and science both are complex social and cultural endeavors that vary across cultures and have changed over time.
  • Science acknowledges reason, empiricism, and evidence, while religions include revelation, faith and sacredness whilst also acknowledging philosophical and metaphysical explanations with regard to the study of

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Question 180

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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What do you understand by social movement? How has the mobilization by Scheduled Castes helped them in constructing a new identity?

Explanation

Social Movements

  • Social movements are defined as “collective attempts to further a common interest or secure a common goal through action outside the sphere of established institutions”. The main characteristics of social movements are;
  • Social movements are among the most powerful forms of collective action. Well-organized, persistent campaigns can b

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Question 181

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Appeared in Year: 2016

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Examine the role of protest movements in changing the status of Dalits in India. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Role of Protest Movements in Changing the Status of Dalits in India

  • Protest is a social process of opposition against any person, group or even wider society. It may occur at individual or collective level, manifest or latent level and may involve action or inaction as a tool of protest.
  • Opposition is central in protest, while a purpose is central in

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Question 182

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Is non-positivistic methodology scientific? Illustrate. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Non-Positivistic Methodology

  • When it was realized by scholars that sociological issues cannot be addressed using fixed laws only, they turned from positivism to non-positivism. While positivist methodologies saw society as given and man as mere part of it governed by its rules. Non-positivists on the other hand considered man as independent thinking

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Question 183

Spirit of Capitalism
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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Distinguish between fact and value in Weber’s Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Facts and Values in Weber’s Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism

  • Religion may be a factor that ‘impedes’ social change or it may help to ‘produce’ it. According to the Functionalists, Marxists and Feminists religion acts as a ‘conservative’ force and it is changes in society that shape religion.
  • From the functionalist perspective, religion provi

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Question 184

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Explain the relevance of the idea of ‘cultural lag’ in understanding social change.

Explanation

Idea of Cultural Lag and Social Change

  • The term cultural lag refers to the “notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag”.
  • Ogburn believed that material and non-material cultures change in different ways. Change in material culture has a marked progressive cha

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Question 185

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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How is the increasing use of technology changing the status of women in Indian society? (Paper-1)

Explanation

Increasing Use of Technology and the Status of Women in Indian Society

  • Science and technology is an important secular medium which transcends local boundaries and touches lives of everyone.
  • Science and technology are essential ingredients of modern life.
  • Evolution of mankind can be seen in terms of technological evolution as well. Invention of fire an

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Question 186

Nation, Democracy and Citizenship
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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Write short notes on the following from a sociological perspective (Each short note in about 150 words): Citizenship and Civil Society

Explanation

Citizenship and Civil Society

  • T H Marshall defines citizenship in his Class, Citizenship and Social Development, 1973 in terms of a membership of a community which brings 3 types of rights and duties — Civic, Political and Social. Civil citizenship emerged as a result of rise of concept of property ownership as it required certain mutual obligations

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