Optionals IAS Mains Sociology: Questions 154 - 162 of 503

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Question 154

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Show how family is distinct from household.

Explanation

Family and Household

  • Family is a social unit based on kinship, household is a brick and mortar dwelling unit. The household or Ghar is a residential and domestic unit composed of one or more persons living under the same roof and eating food cooked in the same kitchen or hearth/chulah.
  • Thus, emotional attachment is core feature of family, while comme…

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Question 155

Self and Identity
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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Do you think I and Me are central terms in Mead՚s work? (Paper-1)

Explanation

Central Terms in Mead՚S Work

  • Mead in his book “Mind, Self and Society” has developed the concept of ‘I’ and ‘Me’ . According to him ‘I’ represents the unsocialised self of the individual which develops at the early age of child. Usually in the early ages, alters or society treats in a very confident perception about themselves called ‘I’ .
  • But over t…

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Question 156

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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How could one use Merton՚s concept of deviance to understand the traffic problem in urban India?

Explanation

Merton՚S Concept of Deviance and Traffic Problem in Urban India

  • In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e. g. , crime) , as well as informal violations of social norms (e. g. , rejecting folkways
  • Whereas Merton argues that deviance is not from ‘pathological personalities’ b…

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Question 157

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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What is the difference between anomie in Merton and Durkheim? Explain. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Difference between Anomie in Merton and Durkheim

  • Merton՚s theory that applies to a society like USA, where people believe in and are committed to the pursuit of some desirable ends (e. g. , the “American Dream” - freedom, wealth, status, etc.) . Its essence is that anomie is a social response, or adaptation, due to a disjuncture between socially app…

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Question 158

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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“Power is not a zero-sum game.” Discuss with reference to Weber ′ s and Parsons ′ views. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Weber՚S and Parson՚S Views on Power

  • Power is defined as the ability to influence or control any individual or establishment. It is the ability of individuals or groups to carry out their will, even when opposed by others.
  • Weber has seen power as constant sum game in which one exercises power at the expenses of the other.
  • The nature of power lies in th…

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Question 159

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Appeared in Year: 2012

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Write short notes on the following, keeping sociological perspective in view (Each short note in bout 150 words each) : Sacred and Profane

Explanation

Sacred and Profane

  • According to Emile Durkheim, the enduring essence of religion throughout history and in all societies, can only be located in some true reality, rather than some mysterious, supernatural forces or natures fear. This reality is nothing but society itself, which enters the individual consciousness through a twofold distinction of th…

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Question 160

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Appeared in Year: 2013

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Compare and contrast Sociology with Anthropology. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Sociology and Anthropology

  • Sociology and anthropology had quite different origins. While the Western intellectuals of sociology had a ready context closer to home when modernism, French revolution and industrialization arrived, on the other hand, anthropologists have to discover their own. Anthropology also borrows from pre-historic archaeology.
  • Soci…

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Question 161

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Objectivity as a sociological goal (Paper-2)

Explanation

Objectivity as a Sociological Goal

  • Objectivity is an approach in which the attitude of a scientific investigator is detached, unprejudiced, value free and free from biases. Objectivity pre-supposes value neutrality and predictability about outcome. It is one of the pillars of ‘Scientific Method’ and core of positivism.
  • – The need of objectivity in so…

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Question 162

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Can we equate ‘poverty’ with ‘poor living’ ? Elaborate your answer.

Explanation

Poverty and Poor Living

  • Poverty is a ′ state in which resources, usually material but sometimes cultural, are lacking. It has been defined primarily in terms of ′ material deprivation ′ .
  • There are two different approaches to poverty. i) Absolute poverty ii) Relative poverty.
  • Poverty defined in ‘absolute terms’ , refers to a state in which the individ…

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