Optionals IAS Mains Psychology: Questions 41 - 47 of 269

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Question 41

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Critically Evaluate the cognitive approach to the study of psychological phenomena.

Explanation

Cognitive Approach to the Study of Psychological Phenomena

  • The cognitive revolution in psychology began during 1960s and emerged as a challenge to behaviourism. It put forth that thought processes influenced the way in which we behave the cognitive approach focused on study of cognitive processes like memory, thought, reasoning, problem solving etc.
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Question 42

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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How does stress contribute to the causation of physical illness? Discuss the role of optimism as factor moderating the impact of stress. (Paper 2 Section A)

Explanation

Stress

  • Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy.
  • In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
  • Positive stress helps improve athletic performance. It also plays a factor in motivation, adaptation, and reaction to the environment. Excessive amounts of stress, however, may lead to bodily harm. Stress can increase…

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Question 43

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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How would you apply Operant Conditioning technique for toilet training to a 3-year-old boy? (Paper 1)

Explanation

Operant Conditioning

  • Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner, 1938) .
  • Skinner believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive t…

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Question 44

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Explain the psychosocial consequences of crowding and high population density. Suggest appropriate policies to deal with related problems in the Indian context.

(Paper 2 Section B)

Explanation

Psychosocial Consequences of Crowding and High Population Density

  • Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. The psychosocial consequences of crowding and high popu…

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Question 45

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Distinguish between negative reinforcement and punishment. Do you think punishment is an effective way to modify behaviour? (Paper 1)

Explanation

Negative Reinforcement and Punishment

Differences between Reinforcement and Punishment
  • In behavioural psychology, negative reinforcement and punishment are forms of control that are meant to modify behaviour.
  • Reinforcement and punishment are techniques developed by BF Skinner on the basis of operant conditioning.
Table of Differences between Reinforcement and Punishment

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Question 46

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Evaluate “interview” as a method of data collection. (Paper 1)

Explanation

Interview as a Method of Data Collection

  • To carry out a research, the researcher must have to go through different steps. Among those steps, data collection is an important aspect. Data collection can be considered as one of the core steps in research methodology. The process of data collection, that is, how the data to be collected is determined ac…

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Question 47

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Discuss the most commonly used techniques or skills psychologists teach to athletes for improving their performance. (Paper 2 Section B)

Explanation

Psychologists and the Techniques Used by Them for Improving Their Performance

  • The psychologist use different techniques to increase efficiency of sports training components and, within competition, fix efficiency at the level equal to acquired training level.
  • In other words, it attempts to minimize effects of negative mental influences and at the sam…

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