Optionals IAS Mains Psychology: Questions 27 - 32 of 269

Access detailed explanations (illustrated with images and videos) to 269 questions. Access all new questions- tracking exam pattern and syllabus. View the complete topic-wise distribution of questions. Unlimited Access, Unlimited Time, on Unlimited Devices!

View Sample Explanation or View Features.

Rs. 750.00 -OR-

How to register? Already Subscribed?

Question 27

Edit

Appeared in Year: 2018

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

Explain the use of availability heuristics and representative heuristics in problem solving with the help of research studies. (Section B)

Explanation

Heuristics

  • Problem-solving is a mental process that involves discovering, analyzing and solving problems.
  • The ultimate goal of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find a solution that best resolves the issue.
  • The best strategy for solving a problem depends largely on the unique situation.
Heuristics
  • A heuristic is a guiding principle or “rule o…

… (208 more words) …

Question 28

Edit

Appeared in Year: 2018

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

In what way can dissonance be an effective means for changing attitudes and behavior? (Section B)

Explanation

Dissonance an Effective Means for Changing Attitudes and Behaviour

  • Leon Festinger proposed consistency theory of attitude change, i.e.. , cognitive dissonance theory. It refers to the conflict that you feel when your behaviour is not consistent with attitudes.
  • For example, if a person believes that cigarettes cause cancer at the same time he smokes c…

… (205 more words) …

Question 29

Edit

Appeared in Year: 2018

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

Is sleep is a passive process? Justify your answer with proper scientific support. (Section B)

Explanation

Sleep a Passive Process

Sleep is a recurring state of relaxation that is characterized by an altered state of consciousness, inhibited sensory activity, muscular inhibition, and severely reduced interaction with outside entities.

Sleep Has Different Stages

Stage 1

In stage 1 sleep heart rate slows, irregular breathing, relaxation of muscles, presents o…

… (472 more words) …

Question 30

Edit

Appeared in Year: 2018

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

Explain and critically evaluate the phenomenon of perceptual defence. (Section A)

Explanation

Perceptual Defence

  • There are different types of perception. One among them is perceptual defence.
  • Perceptual defence is the process by which the thought that certain stimuli are either not perceived or are distorted due to their offensive, unpleasant, or threatening nature. In other words it is the non-recognition of threatening stimuli.
  • Human beings …

… (226 more words) …

Question 31

Edit

Appeared in Year: 2018

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

Describe the structure and features of language focusing on what makes human language unique in comparison to communication in animals. (Section B)

Explanation

Structure and Features of Language

  • Language is the process through which we share the results of our own cognition with others and receive similar input from them.
  • According to Noam Chomsky Language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length, and constructed out of a finite set of elements. But as we all know communication betw…

… (340 more words) …

Question 32

Edit

Appeared in Year: 2018

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

Differentiate between positive and negative types of reinforcements and punishment. Describe how these could be applied to enforce putting on the seat belts while driving. Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence. The concept of reinforcement and punishment is explained on behalf of operant conditioning, which is explained by BF Skinner. (Section A)

Explanation

Positive and Negative Types of Reinforcements and Punishment

The following table explains the difference between reinforcement and punishment.

Table of the Reinforcement and Punishment
ReinforcementPunishment
  • The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response.
  • Positive Reinforcement- It involves the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. When a favorable outcome, event, or reward occurs after an action, that particular response or behavior will be strengthened.
  • Negative Reinforcement - It is a response or behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing, or avoiding a negative outcome or aversive stimulus.
  • Any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occurring again; the process of suppressing a response is termed as punishment.
  • Positive Punishment- It works by presenting an aversive consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future.
  • Negative Punishment -It happens when a certain reinforcing stimulus is removed after a particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in the behavior happening less often in the future.
  • …

… (209 more words) …