Optionals IAS Mains Psychology: Questions 22 - 26 of 269

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Question 22

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Essay▾

Why is the principle of random assignment of participants used in experimental method? How do experimenter effects and demand characteristics influence participant՚s behavior in experimentation? What procedures can be adopted to reduce such pitfalls? (Section A)

Explanation

Principle of Random Assignment of Participants

  • The experimental method is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables. It is an investigation in which a hypothesis is scientifically tested.
  • In an experiment, an independent variable …

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Question 23

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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According to Bandura, human beings often demonstrate impressive capacity for the self-regulation of their own behaviour. Evaluate. (Section B)

Explanation

Human Beings and Self-Regulation Capacity of Their Behaviours

  • Albert Bandura is an influential social cognitive psychologist who is perhaps best-known for his social learning theory, the concept of self-efficacy, and his famous Bobo doll experiments. He is a Professor Emeritus at Stanford University and is widely regarded as one of the greatest livi…

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Question 24

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Discuss contemporary researches on stimulating human intelligence using machines and their implications for understanding human behavior. (Section B)

Explanation

Human Intelligence

  • Human intelligence can be defined as the mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one՚s environment. Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine-augmented inte…

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Question 25

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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How can different methods of sampling and data collection be useful in impact evaluation of government social schemes? Describe with a suitable example. (Section A)

Explanation

Impact Evaluation

  • Impact evaluation assesses the changes that can be attributed to a particular intervention, such as a project, program or policy, both the intended ones, as well as ideally the unintended ones. Impact evaluation is structured to answer the question:
  • “How would outcomes such as participants” well-being have changed if the interventio…

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Question 26

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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According to Piaget, the egocentric preschooler is not intentionally “inconsiderate” but rather has difficulty taking another՚s viewpoint. Explain. (Section A)

Explanation

Cognitive Psychology

  • Cognitive Psychology is the study of mental processes such as “attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking” .
  • Jean Piaget proposed theory of cognitive development. He explained four stages of cognitive development.
Piagetis Theory of Cognitive Development

Stages

Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 2 Ye…

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