Optionals IAS Mains Psychology: Questions 108 - 114 of 269

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Question 108

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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What do you understand by intergroup attitudes? Why are such attitudes considered to be a social phenomenon? (Paper II)

Explanation

Intergroup Attitudes

  • Intergroup attitudes or intergroup relations are a major concept studied by social psychologist, political psychologists and organizational psychologist.
    • It considers a range of theories that encompass the perceived relationships between the individual, their own group, and other groups, and that provide a range of psychological …

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Question 109

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Explain how cohesiveness can be promoted in sport teams by using psychological principles.

(Paper II)

Explanation

Cohesiveness and Psychological Principles

  • Cohesion can be more specifically defined as the tendency for a group to be in unity while working towards a goal or to satisfy the emotional needs of its members.
  • This definition includes important aspects of cohesiveness, including its multidimensionality, dynamic nature, instrumental basis, and emotional d…

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Question 110

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Distinguish between content and process theories of work motivation. Comment on the applicability of Maslow՚s theory of work motivation in the Indian context. (Paper II)

Explanation

Process Theories of Work Motivation

  • Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors.
  • Motivation is an important factor in the work place. Employees should be motivated for the successful functioning of any institution.
  • Work motivation is explained on the basis of two theories.
  • They are content theories…

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Question 111

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Elaborate the process of spotting and nurturing gifted children In the Indian context. (Paper II)

Explanation

Gifted Children

Gifted children are, by definition, “Children who give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership capacity, or specific academic fields, and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities.”

Identifying and N…

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Question 112

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of group decision-making over decisions made by individuals. (Paper II)

Explanation

Group Decision

  • Group decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them.
    • It is an important concept in relation to decision-making. In a group decision making process, the decision made is not attributed to any single individual in the group,…

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Question 113

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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What is man-machine system? In this context, explain the applications of human engineering in designing the display systems of the aircrafts. (Paper II)

Explanation

Man-Machine System

  • Human – machine system is a system in which the functions of a human operator (or a group of operators) and a machine are integrated.
  • This term can also be used to emphasize the view of such a system as a single entity that interacts with external environment.
  • Man-machine system is different from manual system. In other words, manua…

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Question 114

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Explain the effects of short-term and chronic exposure to noise on the performance on cognitive tasks. (Paper II)

Explanation

Cognitive Tasks

  • Cognitive tasks need proper attention and concentration.
  • Noise is a disturbance for doing any task, especially a barrier for engaging in any cognitive tasks.
  • But short-term exposure and chronic exposure to noise on the performance on cognitive tasks has different effects.
  • The following articles explain about this:
    • A study was conducted a…

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