Optionals IAS Mains Political Science: Questions 372 - 380 of 398

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Question 372

Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments
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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Essay▾

Examine the features of the Panchayat Extension Services Act (PESA) 1996.

Explanation

Features of the Panchayat Extension Services Act (PESA) 1996

  • Panchayat Extension Services Act or PESA was passed in 1996 with the purpose of extending the Panchayati Raj to the Scheduled Areas.
  • Scheduled areas of India is explained by Article 244 of the Indian Constitution.
  • Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mah

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Question 373

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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‘The Basic Structure doctrine is implicit in the Constitution, the Supreme Court has simply made it explicit. ’ Explain.

Explanation

The Basic Structure Doctrine in the Constitution

  • The Indian Constitution turned the Indian nation into a modern secular, socialist and democratic Republic.
  • All institutions of the Indian state pledge allegiance to the constitution of India.
  • In 1973, the Kesavananda Bharati case changed the dynamics between the executive and judiciary.
  • It also changed t

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Question 374

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Whether judicial activism has undermined or strengthened Parliamentary democracy in India? Discuss.

Explanation

Judicial Activism and Parliamentary Democracy in India

  • The Indian constitution has arranged sufficient distribution of powers of the Indian state.
  • The legislature is responsible for the creation of laws, the executive for administration and execution of laws and the judiciary for ensuring that constitutional validity of the laws.
  • The Article 32 of the

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Question 375

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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Discuss Kautilya’s views on the elements of the state.

Explanation

Kautilya’s Views on the Elements of the State

  • Kautilya is the author of Arthashastra, the ancient Sanskrit treatise on statecraft and economics.
  • Kautilya, also known as Chanakya or Vishnugupta, is often credited to be the advisor of Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan Empire that stretched from modern day Afghanistan to Burma.
  • Kautilya believe

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Question 376

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Critically examine ethnic conflicts in North East India.

Explanation

Ethnic Conflicts in North East India

  • With over 5000 ethnic and sub ethnic groups, India is by and large the most diverse country in the world.
  • After Indian independence, India inherited many regions that were formerly British colonies.
  • The many diverse regions of North East India were different from the Indian hinterland with regards to culture, langu

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Question 377

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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What has been the political fallout of the Green Revolution in India? Explain.

Explanation

Political Fallout of the Green Revolution in India

  • When India achieved its independence from British rule, 90 percent of its population practiced agriculture.
  • There were multiple problems:
    • Inequitable land distribution
    • lack of modern technology
    • lack of irrigation facilities.
  • Owing to these problems, India spent first fifteen years seeking bailouts and fo

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Question 378

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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According to Gramsci “hegemony is primarily based on organisation of consent”. Comment.

Explanation

Gramsci “Hegemony is Primarily Based on Organisation of Consent”

  • Antonio Gramsci was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician who wrote extensively on class struggles and the rise of fascism in the inter war years.
  • He was preoccupied mostly with why Marx’s predicted revolution didn’t occur in Europe.
  • Marx in his writings wrote how throughout time

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Question 379

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Examine the various causes for agrarian crisis in India.

Explanation

Various Causes for Agrarian Crisis in India

  • With over 50 percent of the population involved, India has the largest share of people in agriculture in the world.
  • It makes up 13 percent of our GDP of 2.3 trillion dollars and generates 2.15 percent of world agricultural trade.
  • But after 70 years of independence, Indian agriculture continues to languish an

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Question 380

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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How is the current standoff between the USA and Iran affecting India’s energy security?

Explanation

Current Standoff between the USA and Iran

  • In 2011, Iran revealed that it had built a nuclear reactor in Qom for peaceful purposes.
  • This brought out in public what all NATO powers already knew, that Iran had nuclear capabilities and was a potential nuclear power.
  • Sanctions after sanctions followed, mostly on military purchases. Ballistic missiles or an

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