Optionals IAS Mains Political Science: Questions 96 - 106 of 398

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Question 96

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Secularism in the Indian Constitution

Explanation

Secularism and the Constitution of India

  • Secularism is political value that mandates complete separation of church and the state.
  • It was a product of the Age of Renaissance in Europe which was a reaction to the excessive influence held by the clergy over the state.
  • The founders of the Indian Constitution mention it specifically in the Preamble that th…

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Question 97

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Discuss the efficacy of judicial review in India.

Explanation

Efficacy of Judicial Review in India

  • Back in the 18th Century, John Locke had floated the idea of separation of powers.
  • He believed that in the current system in England, allotted too much powers to the executive which allowed it to become tyrannical.
  • This led to the current system of separation of powers, which involves distributing powers proportion…

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Question 98

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Aristotle՚s Conception of Equality

Explanation

Aristotle՚S Conception of Equality

  • Aristotle was a renowned Greek philosopher and credited to be the first political scientist.
  • Being the student of Plato, he dedicated all his efforts in studying different political structures of ancient Greece.
  • Unlike his teacher, he was less interested in creating an ideal society and more interested in knowing whi…

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Question 99

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Satyagraha as a strategy in the Indian National Movement

Explanation

Satyagraha and the Indian National Movement

  • The word Satyagraha is a Sanskrit word comprised of two parts: Satya (Truth) and agraha (to insist firmly) .
  • So, satyagraha is movement where the participants insist solely on path of true and non violence.
  • Gandhi was the father of this form of protest and it was emulated everywhere from United States to Pol…

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Question 100

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Discuss ‘Right to Education’ and the concerns raised by it.

Explanation

Right to Education and the Concerns Raised by It

  • India lacks behind in the Human Development Index released by the UN Development Programme. (UNDP)
  • A major reason behind this is lack of good primary education in India.
  • Education plays a major role in development of human character that can lead to an individual՚s wholesome development.
  • In order to rect…

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Question 101

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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‘Difference Principle’ in Rawls Theory of Justice

Explanation

‘Difference Principle’ in Rawls Theory of Justice

  • John Rawls was a philosophy professor in Harvard University.
  • He was an ideological descendant of the classical liberal tradition, albeit with a little slant to the left.
  • He was at his roots, an individualist, who believed that all political processes must serve the individual attain his best potential.
  • …

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Question 102

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Idea of natural rights.

Explanation

Idea of Natural Rights

  • Rights are said to be certain social conditions that every individual is to be provided irrespective of their birth.
  • They are claims raised by individuals or groups within a social context.
  • These claims are defended by the state through the use of its coercive apparatus.
  • The idea of natural rights has its origins in the Age of En…

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Question 103

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Distinguish between power and authority.

Explanation

Power and Authority

  • Ultimately, all politics is associated with power. Power is often treated as a basic need of humanity, comparable to food and shelter.
  • The need for social status is one important factor for power struggles around the world.
  • What is power? It is the ability of an individual or a social group to influence another individuals and soci…

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Question 104

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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In the light of new economic policies of 1991, examine the relevance of the word “socialist” in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Explanation

Socialist and the Preamble of the Indian Constitution

  • The word socialist refers to the economic system in which means of production is owned collectively.
  • In socialist countries, all means of production of are owned by the state in the name of the people.
  • In India, the word “socialist” was inserted in the Constitution through the 42nd Amendment of 197…

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Question 105

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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‘Plato was an enemy of the open society’ . Discuss (Popper)

Explanation

Plato an Enemy of the Open Society

  • Karl Popper was a renewed libertarian scholar of the post World War order.
  • He had spent his entire life studying socio-political systems and had come to the conclusion that societies that are open to change are far more stable and peaceful.
  • Throughout time, the societies which went to war and disrupted peace were the…

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Question 106

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Gandhi՚s Views on the State

Explanation

Gandhi՚S Views on the State

The Mahatma Gandhiji

Mahatma Gandhi

  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian independence leader who is primarily known for his views on non violence.
  • Gandhi used his methods of satyagraha, peaceful and non violent protests to seek independence from British colonial rule.
  • Gandhi was a philosophical anarchist, borrowing mostly…

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