Optionals IAS Mains Philosophy: Questions 51 - 59 of 76

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Question 51

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Appeared in Year: 2010

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How does Aristotle’s notion of causation defer from the modern notion of causation. (Marks 15)

Explanation

Aristotle’s Notion of Causation and the Modern Notion of Causation

  • Aristotle held that there are 4 causes- material, efficient, formal and final cause. According to him all matter is potent to become something actual. Further, Aristotle states that the whole world is moving towards the pure form or Act us Purus.
  • Hence, he advanced doctrine of unfoldm

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Question 52

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State and discuss Russell’s analysis of Definite Descriptions.

Explanation

Russell’s Analysis of Definite Descriptions

  • Russell was no sceptic. He therefore took recourse to logical constructions so as to explain the reality of external objects based on immediately apprehended sense datum. Here, he applied the principle laid in Ockham’s razor, whereby inference which is a leap from known to the unknown is to be avoided and

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Question 53

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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What do you consider to be the future of Marxism in the context of the prevalent free market economy?

Explanation

Future of Marxism and Prevalent Free Market Economy

Marx’s theory

Marx’s Theory

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Marx’s theory has been proven wrong by many societies; theoretically, it has been proven wrong by many people. So it appears there is no future for Marxism in any successful society.

  • Marx incorrectly insists that in capitalism workers are exploited by being paid less tha

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Question 54

Revelation and Faith
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Appeared in Year: 2019

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What is instrumental to self-revelation: faith or reason? Justify your position.

Explanation

Instrumental to Self-Revelation-Faith or Reason

  • In religions, the concept of self-realization is taken from a different perspective altogether. Connecting with your truest self has a lot to do with transcending your own mind and body. This self is often considered as an eternal being that is not confined to the physical space that your mind and body

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Question 55

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Appeared in Year: 2006

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Write short note on: Theory of knowledge according to Locke. . (Marks 20)

Explanation

Theory of Knowledge According to Locke

  • Locke refuted theory of innate ideas. He said that our mind at the beginning is “TABULA RASA” and all our knowledge is derived from the ideas which we get from various experiences. The sensations from those experiences enter our mind and illuminate knowledge inside us.
  • According to Locke’s theory of knowledge, i

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Question 56

Rebirth and Liberation
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Appeared in Year: 2019

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State and explain the doctrine of Karma, Rebirth and Reincarnation in Hinduism.

Explanation

Doctrine of Karma, Rebirth and Reincarnation of Hinduism

  • Our wise sages desired to know the mysteries of life and death. What happens after death? Why is there so much happiness for some and suffering for others in a lifetime? The Gods revealed to the rishis in their deepest meditations the answers to these puzzling questions.
  • They revealed the laws

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Question 57

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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Discuss whether and how does religious symbolism lead to mysticism?

Explanation

Religious Symbolism and Mysticism

Religious symbolism

Religious Symbolism

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  • When in the pursuit of ultimate a sage experiences some mystical thought, he tries to translate it in some kind of song, fable and pictorial form. This is the beginning of symbolism. Symbolism does not lead to mysticism. Mysticism experiences in order to express themselves use symb

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Question 58

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Appeared in Year: 2019

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Does technological development lead to progress in the ethical standards of the society? Explain.

Explanation

Technological Developments and Ethical Standards of the Society

Werhner von braun

Werhner Von Braun

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  • Let us take some technological advancements and study them in the context of ethical advancements.
  • Prenatal genetic screening and selection to detect certain diseases that may result in terminating a pregnancy is commonplace. Another method of achieving t

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Question 59

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Appeared in Year: 2009

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Comment on – Plato’s analogy of the cave and its significance in his theory of knowledge. (Marks 20)

Explanation

Plato’s Analogy of the Cave

  • Analogy of the cave in important part of Plato’s epistemology.
  • He asks us to imagine prisoners tied from birth who look at a wall. The prisoners only see shadows of the world of sunlight. This world is not visible to the prisoners and hence the prisoners assume the world of shadows to be real. One prisoner escapes and sees

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