Optionals IAS Mains Philosophy: Questions 27 - 34 of 76

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Question 27

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How do Yoga philosophy comprehend the citta-levels of a Scientist, a God realized devotee and a Self-realized Yogi? Justify your answer.

Explanation

Yoga Philosophy Comprehended the Citta-Levels of a Scientist

  • According to Yoga philosophy there are five kinds of chitta bhumi or chitta levels or in other words five stages of chitta.
  • These chitta levels decides the behaviour of a person. So we must have a familiarity with this concept of different levels of chitta.

Mudha or Infatuated

The infatuated

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Question 28

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What is Pratitya-samutpada? How do the Buddhists apply this concept to prove that everything is momentary?

Explanation

Pratitya-Samutpada and Buddhists Concept

  • This is the central conception of the system of Buddha. This is the Buddhist theory of causation. This explains the nature of existence. He said “leave aside the questions of the beginning and end. I will instruct you in the Law (dharma of Buddhism). If ‘that’ is, ‘this’ comes to be; on the springing up of ‘t

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Question 29

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Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:

Are the carvakas consistent when they hold that inference is not a source of knowledge? Discuss.

Explanation

Carvakas and Inference a Source of Knowledge

  • For Carvakas inference is not a valid means of knowledge because universal relation which should serve as its ground is impossible. For instance let us take the following example:
    • Whatever has smoke has fire
    • The hill has smoke
    • Therefore the hill has fire.
Inference is not certain

Inference is Not Certain

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  • Here a univers

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Question 30

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What is the role of Jnanalakshana pratyakshaAnythakhyati? in explaining

Explanation

Role of Jnanalakshana Pratyaksha in Explaining Anythakhyati

  • The Naiyayikas explain illusion with the help of the theory of jnanalaksana Pratyaksa (Acquired Perception). The illusory silver is perceived because it is presented through our previous knowledge of silver as seen at some other time and place. But the Vedantins object to the Nyaya theory o

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Question 31

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Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:

Can hallucination be regarded as an intentional act by Husserl? Explain.

Basic Phenomenological Concepts

Basic Phenomenological Concepts

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Explanation

Hallucination an Intentional Act by Husserl

  • In order to understand the intentional status of hallucination we must first familiarise ourselves with two most important concepts in Husserlian thought.
  • The first concept is phenomenology and the second concept is intentionality. Let us see these concepts one by one.

Phenomenology

  • Although Husserl was not t

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Question 32

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Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:

What is the role of dialectics in realizing the truth in Hegel’s Philosophy?

Explanation

Role of Dialectics in Realising the Truth in Hegel’s Philosophy

  • Conception of truth in Hegel’s Philosophy: in the philosophy of Hegel the absolute truth is not a static concept. It is an absolute idea which is the result of an all-encompassing evolution of the universe. On every level, whether it is matter, life or mind, the universe goes through th

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Question 33

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How is reality defined by Jainas? How is this theory of reality reflected in their view on judgements? Discuss.

Explanation

Reality Defined by Jainas and Their Views on Judgements

  • Jainism regards reality as multiple facets in its character. It is what changes almost perpetually or is dynamic, and yet keeps its identity throughout. Everything that exists has a general as well as a particular aspect. The both aspects of an object is taken as two as together consisting real

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Question 34

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Elucidate St. Anselm’s Ontological Argument with criticisms.

Explanation

St. Anselm’s Ontological Argument with Criticisms

  • Saint Anselm (1035 - 1109 AD) was one of the most important Christian thinkers, an Italian philosopher and theologian of the eleventh century. He made sincere efforts to make everyone understand Christian faith.
  • He is recognized for many intellectual accomplishments, including his contribution to theo

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