Optionals IAS Mains Philosophy: Questions 19 - 26 of 104

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Question 19

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What do you understand by Spinoza՚s statement that what is, cannot be other than what it is.

Explanation

Spinoza՚S Statement “What is, Cannot be Other Than What It Is”

  • In other words, there is only one possible history for the universe or, more to the point, things could not be other than they are. This view is known as necessitarianism.
  • Necessitarianism makes a stronger claim than determinism which only asserts that the future is uniquely determined by…

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Question 20

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Show how Wittgenstien՚s critique of solipsism culminates in the critique of private language.

Wittgenstien՚S Critique of Solipsism

Explanation

Wittgenstein՚S Critique of Solipsism

  • Solipsism is sometimes expressed as the view that “I am the only mind which exists,” or “My mental states are the only mental states.” Solipsism is therefore more properly regarded as the doctrine that, in principle, “existence” means for me my existence and that of my mental states.
  • Existence is everything that I…

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Question 21

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How do the logical positivists account for the meaning of general statement? Can the same account be applied to metaphysical statements? Discuss.

Explanation

Logical Positivists and Metaphysical Statements

  • Logical positivism as a movement is traceable to Analytical Philosophy. The development of science brought about rapid changes in Philosophy. Just as science had to create its own technical vocabulary and introduce concepts (e. g. , force, mass, atom) that are more precise than those supplied by common…

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Question 22

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How does Sartre look at the problem of freedom of choice and determinism? Explain.

Question 23

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What are the reasons for developmental changes in substance according to Aristotle? Discuss.

Explanation

Developmental Changes in Substance as Per Aristotle

  • According to Aristotle the reasons for developmental changes in substance are two that is Nature and the four causes.
  • These are answers to the question “Why?” let us see them one by one.

Nature

  • The relation between substance and nature can be explained in this way: As we have just seen, nature is the …

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Question 24

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Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:

How does Descartes prove the existence of thing other than himself and God? Discuss.

Question 25

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Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:

How do the yogacara Buddhists deny the existence of the external world? Discuss.

Explanation

Yogcara Buddhists and the Existence of the External World

  • According to Yogacaras, the world is the manifestation of our consciousness. Therefore, they deny the independent existence of the world apart from the consciousness. All things are the construction of our mind. Consciousness is the sole reality and external world is the manifestation of cons…

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Question 26

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How does Kant argue for the transcendence of space and time? Discuss.

Explanation

Kant and the Transcendence of Space and Time

  • Kant has argued that space is merely the form of outer intuition, and not a property of nor a system of relations between independently real things in themselves. Likewise, time is merely the form of inner intuition.
  • But, as the necessary a priori forms of intuitions, they are thereby the forms of all intu…

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