Optionals IAS Mains Philosophy: Questions 11 - 18 of 104

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Question 11

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Why Moore՚s philosophy is called common sense realism?

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Moore՚S Philosophy and Common Sense Realism

  • Moore expressed more explicitly the methodological basis for his philosophical work. The ordinary beliefs human beings hold are to be accepted at face value: they mean what they say and are true, standing in no need of philosophical correction or proof. The purpose of philosophical analysis, according to M…

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Question 12

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How does Udayana prove the existence of God through Karyat, Ayojnat, Dhrtyadeh and sruteh? Discuss.

Explanation

Udayana and the Existence of God

Udayana in his Nyaya- kusumanjali presents nine arguments to prove the existence of God. These arguments are as follows:

Karyat (From Effect)

  • The world is an effect, all effects have efficient cause, and hence the world must have an efficient cause.
  • That efficient cause is God.

Ayojnat (From Combination)

  • Atoms are inactiv…

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Question 13

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Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:

Explain Quine՚s arguments against synthetic analytic distinction.

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Quine՚S Arguments Against Synthetic Analytic Distinction

  • The tradition of synthetic analytic distinction is a famous and also a controversial tradition in western philosophy.
  • This distinction refers to the two broad divisions of propositions. The first category is the ‘analytic propositions’ and the second is “synthetic propositions” .

Analytic Propos…

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Question 14

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Is dasein authentic existence for Heidegger? How does he relate temporality with dasein? Discuss.

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Dasein and Authentic Existence of Heidegger

  • In everyday German language the word “Dasein” means life or existence. The noun is used by other German philosophers to denote the existence of any entity. However, Heidegger breaks the word down to its components “Da” and “Sein,” and gives to it a special meaning which is related to his answer to the ques…

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Question 15

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Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:

Justify the status of abhava as a category in Vaishesika philosophy.

Explanation

Status of Abhava in Vaishesika Philosophy

  • The Nyaya vaishesika who are realists forward the view that every experience has its counterpart in the external world. This view of the Nyaya-Vaishesika reaches its extreme limit in this conception of abhava or non-existence. Everybody experiences a piece of ground where there is no jar, or when a jar is de…

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Question 16

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Explain the unique position of the super mind in the metaphysical scheme of Aurobindo՚s philosophy.

Metaphysical Scheme of Aurobindo՚S Philosophy

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Unique Position of the Super Mind in the Metaphysical Scheme of Aurobindo՚S Philosophy

  • Super mind, in Sri Aurobindo՚s philosophy of integral yoga, is the dynamic manifestation of the Absolute, and the intermediary between Spirit and the manifest world, which enables the transformation of common being into Divine being. - Super mind is a plane betwee…

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Question 17

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Is there any element of necessity in causal relations according to Hume? Discuss.

Explanation

Element of Necessity in Causal Relations According to Hume

  • For Hume, causality, as it is in the world, is a regular succession of event-types: one thing invariably following another. His famous first definition of causality runs as follows: “We may define a CAUSE to be An object precedent and contiguous to another, and where all the objects resembli…

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Question 18

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Which Sankhya proof for the existence of Prakriti actually shows that there can be only one prakriti? Justify your answer.

Sankhya Proof for the Existence of Prakriti Actually

Explanation

Sankhya Proof for the Existence of Prakriti

  • The theory that causation means a real transformation of the material cause leads to the concept of Prakrti as the root cause of the world of objects. All worldly effects are latent in this uncaused cause, because infinite regress has to be avoided. It is the potentiality of nature, ‘the receptacle and nur…

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