Optionals IAS Mains History: Questions 41 - 48 of 309

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Question 41

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Explain that ‘The French Revolution attacked privileges and not property.’

Explanation

French Revolution Attacked Privileges and Not Property

  • It was a period of radical social and political disorder in France and Europe. French society underwent massive changes as feudal, aristocratic, and religious privileges ceased to exist. The monarchy was abolished, and old ideas about hierarchy and tradition gave in to new Enlightenment principl…

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Question 42

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Explain the principle features of architecture during Akbar՚s rule. What changes were made in them by Shah Jahan?

Explanation

Architecture During Akbar՚S Rule

It represents the finest example of the Indo Islamic architecture. We will talk about the projects and these are: -

Building Projects

  • Akbar building project can be divided into two main streams, each representing a different phase.
  • The first group comprises building of fork and a few places mainly at Agra, Allahabad, an…

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Question 43

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Lack of innovation caused the decline of Indus valley Civilization. Do you agree?

Explanation

Lack of Innovation and the Decline of Indus Valley Civilisation

  • The Indus valley civilization was the most extensive civilization, which spread over million Sq.
  • The civilization flourished for nearly 1000 years but eventually came to an end. Among the reasons for decline, many contesting views surface.
  • Inherent weaknesses in civilization, particularl…

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Question 44

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The second urbanization gave rise to the organized corporate activities that reached their zenith during the Gupta period. Discuss.

Explanation

Second Urbanization-Introduction

  • As we see that so in later Vedic period agriculture economy came into existence. So, the change in the economic structure laid the foundation of 2nd urbanization. Because the iron revolution of 1000 BC and paddy cultivation. Later Vedic period has agricultural surplus, so the production centre turned into urban centr…

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Question 45

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Akbar built a Mughal Empire by enlisting the support of the Rajputs; Aurangjeb destroyed it by alienating the Rajputs. Do you agree?

Explanation

Akbar and the Mughal Empire

  • Akbar transformed the Mughal empire in to a national monarchy by these: -
  1. He forged matrimonial relation with several Hindu Rajput dynasty.
  2. He separated religion from politics, rejected the Islamic theory of state, and raised the policy of religious toleration to the height of secularism.
  3. By associating with Rajput, he stren…

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Question 46

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The emergence of Non-Harappan Chalcolithic cultures in Central India and the Deccan mark a change not only in the subsistence pattern of people but an overall transition from pre to proto historic period. Critically analyze.

Explanation

Emergence of Non-Harappan Cultures and the Overall Transition

  • In many parts of India, the Neolithic phase was followed by the emergence of Chalcolithic cultures in which stone continued to be used side by side with copper. Though, most of these cultures belong to a period after that of the Harappan culture they were much less advanced than the Harap…

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Question 47

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Trace the development of architecture from 1556 AD to 1707 AD.

Explanation

Development of Architecture from 1556 AD to 1707 AD

The Mughal Architecture
  • The Mughal architecture is a mixture of the Islamic architecture of central Asia and Hindu architecture of India. Akbar was only responsible for its origin and development. Akbar possessed a national attitude and that reflected in all fine arts, which grew and developed durin…

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Question 48

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Analyze the elements of urban civilization in Harappan culture.

Explanation

Urban Civilization in Harappan Culture

  • Harappan civilization was one of the oldest and one of the most extensive civilizations in the world.
  • The archaeological evidence discovered from Harappan settlement have provided detailed information about politico administrative, socio cultural, economic and religious life of this great civilization.
Harappan Civilization
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