Optionals IAS Mains Geology: Questions 21 - 27 of 113

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Question 21

Distribution and Classification of Precambrian Rocks of India
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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Discuss the stratigraphy and distribution of marine depositional episodes in the Gondwana sequence of India. (Mains – Paper 1)

Explanation

Stratigraphy and Distribution of Marine Depositional Episodes in the Gondwana Sequence of India

  • Gondwana basins of India occur within the suture zones of Precambrian cratonic blocks of Peninsular India along some linear belts.
  • More than 99 % of coal resource is present within the basins.
  • These basins preserve a thick sedimentary pile deposited over ne

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Question 22

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Describe the geological considerations for designing and constructing earthquake resistant structures. (Paper-1)

Explanation

Geological Considerations for Designing and Constructing Earthquake Resistant Structures

Techniques

  • Shear walls they resist gravity leads and lateral loads
  • Bracing
  • Dampers
  • Rollers

Active System

The system provides seismic protection by imposing forces on a structure that counter balance the earthquake induced forces.

Passive System

These systems are passiv

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Question 23

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Using case studies explain the application of geomorphology in mineral prospecting

Explanation

Application of Geomorphology in Mineral Prospecting

Application of Geomorphology

  • Geomorphic features may be helpful in locating mineral deposits in various ways.
  • Mineral deposits are associated with geological structure. Landscape characteristics of the specific localities could indicate such geological structures.
  • The application of geomorphology in m

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Question 24

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Discuss the evidences of seafloor spreading and explain with illustrative diagrams, how earthquakes and subduction processes are related to each other. (Paper -1)

Explanation

Seafloor Spreading

Introduction

  • The Hypothesis of sea floor spreading was first postulated by Harry Hess in 1960.
  • According to the hypothesis,
  • The mid ocean ridges occur in all major ocean basins.
  • The oceanic crust has a thickness of 6 to 7 km.
  • Mid oceanic ridges are situated over the rising limbs of convection currents in the earth’s mantle and that thi

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Question 25

Paleogeography and Igneous Activity in the Indian Subcontinent
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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Essay▾

Note on Chronological order of volcanic events of the Indian Plate, and explanation of causes and manner of Deccan volcanism

Explanation

Introduction – Volcanic Events of the Indian Plate

  • Deccan traps are largely made up of lava flows of basic composition.
  • The age of Deccan volcanish produced the longest lava mega – flows on earth, spanning over 1500 km from the main Deccan province across India to “Rajahmundry” an out in the Gulf of Bengal.

Cretaceous – Tertiary (K-T) Boundary

The Decc

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Question 26

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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How does the urbanization affect groundwater recharge? How can the recharge be increased? (Mains Paper -2)

Explanation

Urbanization and Groundwater Recharge

Introduction

  • Most of the Earth’s liquid freshwater is found as stored underground in and not in the lakes and rivers.
  • Groundwater plays an important role in terms of the economic and social health of the of the developing world.
  • Cities need to supply water in various combinations as per demands of their private, pu

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Question 27

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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With the help of case study, describe the methodology for using satellite imagery and GIS to identify potential zones of groundwater. (Paper-1)

Explanation

  • Introduction
    • Groundwater is the source for irrigation and domestic purpose. For domestic purpose – rural areas use and urban areas use . The rate of groundwater flow is controlled by two properties of the rock: porosity and permeability.
    • Remote sensing data combined with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique is very efficient in identifica

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