Optionals IAS Mains Geology: Questions 80 - 89 of 126

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Question 80

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Describe a desert and discuss how a desert is classified. Discuss the morphology of dune and conditions favoring the formation of different types of dunes.

Explanation

Desert

  • Deserts are the region with very low annual rainfall (less than 30 mm) , meagre vegetation, extensive areas of bare and the Rocky Mountains, and plateaux and alluvial plains that cover about a third of earth՚s land surface. Aridity forms the basis of the classification of deserts.
  • Several classifications of sand deposits have been proposed, bu…

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Question 81

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Describe the mechanism of faulting.

Explanation

Mechanism of Faulting

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rocks, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

Stress and Strain

  • Force acting per unit area is called Stress.
  • It is the reaction of the body by the external force. It may of 3 types –

Compressive Stress

When the m…

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Question 82

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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What are strain markers? Discuss their significance.

Explanation

Strain Markers

  • Finite strain in rocks can be measure from the deformed shapes of certain geological objects.
  • These are known as strain markers or strain gauges.

To determine strain geologist have used a variety of strain markers as follows:

  • One-dimensional strain markers – They are objects of known original length – boudinaged structures like dikes or …

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Question 83

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Describe the different types of coastal landforms.

Explanation

Coastal Landforms

  • The Coastal Landforms are formed by the constant action of the waves, tides, and currents. The coastline under the influence of these denudational agents changes the coastal landforms and gives shapes to various types of marine landform features. The types of landforms formed by the waves and tides in the coastal landforms include:
  • …

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Question 84

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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What are river terraces? Discuss their geological significance.

Explanation

River Terraces

  • They are the landform features shaped by the action of a river. These are the plains above the present river floodplain. It forms because of dissection of fluvial sediments of flood plains deposited along a valley floor. Multi-level river terraces appear like stairs or step-like forms on one or both sides of the river.
  • They are product…

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Question 85

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Write a note on: -

Origin of karst topography

Explanation

Origin of Karst Topography

  • The word karst is a comprehensive term applied to limestone or dolomite areas that possess a topography peculiar to and dependent upon underground solution and the diversion of surface waters to underground routes.
  • The term comes from the narrow strip of limestone plateau in Yugoslavia and adjacent portions of Italy borderi…

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Question 86

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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What are the different types of landslides? Discuss their controlling measures.

Explanation

Landslides

  • Landslides are natural as well as man-induced hazards when they occur in uninhabited area but they become disasters when they strike populated areas. Generally, hills, and mountains and cliffed sea coasts are vulnerable to landslides of various sorts. The movement of rock waste en-block down the slope of the hills known as the mass moveme…

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Question 87

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Give a geological account of Deccan Volcanic Province.

Explanation

Deccan Volcanic Province

Introduction

  • The Deccan traps are a large province on the Deccan Plateau of West – Central India, one of the largest volcanic features on the earth. They comprise multiple layers of solidification flood basalt together are more than 200 m thick and cover an area of 500,000 square kilometres.
  • The term ‘’ trap ‘’ has been derive…

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Question 88

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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Discuss the tectonic sub-divisions of Himalaya.

Explanation

Tectonic Sub-Divisions of Himalaya

  • The Himalaya, on the southern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau, form a mountain arc (convex toward the south) about 2400 km long and 250 - 300 km wide; they are bounded by two structural bends on the northwest (Nanga Parbat, the Indus gorge) and northeast (Namcha Barwa, the Tsangpo gorge) .
  • The Himalayas are the loftie…

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Question 89

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Appeared in Year: 2017

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How would you differentiate between a fault and an unconformity in the field?

Explanation

Fault and Unconformity

Recognition of Fault in the Field

  • A fault may be defined as a fracture along which blocks of rock have been displaced relative to each other.
  • It results from tensional and compressional forces.
Diagrammatic Representation of Faults and Its Elements
  • Faults may be directly seen in the field, particularly in artificial exposures like…

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