Test-3: Biogeography & Environmental Geography (Examrace IAS Mains Geography Optional-Test Series 2017)

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Max Marks: 250

Total Time: 3 Hrs



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  1. Candidates must attempt all 5 questions.

  2. The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.

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  4. Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.

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  6. Attempts of questions shall be counted in chronological order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly.

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1. (a) Discuss the USDA Zonal Soil Classification. (20)

(b) Explain Takhtajan’s floristic regime, highlighting the spatial distribution of the various regimes. (15)

(c) Discuss the importance of watershed for sustainable development. Cite global case studies for watershed development initiatives. (15)

2. (a) Differentiate environment, ecology and ecosystem. Explain functional aspects of ecosystem. (15)

(b) State the uniqueness of Mediterranean Climate. (15)

(c) Discuss Marrakesh Action Proclamation for Our Climate and Sustainable Development. (20)

3. (a) Examine the cause, effects and solutions for landfills mainly in urban areas. (25)

(b) “Radioactive pollution can be a serious threat to society”. Discuss in light of Fukishima Nuclear Reactor. (25)

4. (a) Explain various ways of in-situ and ex-situ conservation. (20)

(b) “Forests act as carbon sinks”. Elucidate. (15)

(c) How does energy flow takes place in ecosystem? (15)

5. (a) Frequent landslides hinder development activities in hilly areas. Justify with suitable examples. (30)

(b) Discuss the Wallace Faunal Realms. (20)

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