Perspectives in Human Geography [Optionals IAS Mains Geography]: Questions 1 - 9 of 25

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Question 1

Perspectives in Human Geography
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Explain Hartshorne՚s idea of areal differentiation and Berry՚s views on regional synthesis. (30 Marks)

Explanation

Hartshorne՚S Idea of Areal Differentiation

  • Areal Differentiation: The concept was propounded by Richard Hartshorne.
  • The main idea behind his theory was to differentiate between different areas of world on the earth surface.
  • In another terms it is the study of how human and physical phenomenon interact and vary over the surface of earth.
  • It is in some a…

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Question 2

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Explain welfare approach and the ideas of Amartya Sen. (20 Marks)

Explanation

Welfare Approach and Amartya Sen

  • Welfare Approach emphasized on the aspects of social life like social justice and inequality.
  • This theory was against quantitative revolution and it emerged from the radical reaction. Issues addressed under this theory are as follows: poverty, hunger, crime, radial discrimination, equality in every aspect of life.
  • Dist…

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Question 3

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Exaplain Why there was a need to evolve radical approach? Explain radical approach in present context.

Explanation

Radical Approach

Radical approach was given by Harvey & beat during the era of 1970 - 1980՚s.

Reasons for Evolution of Radical Approach

  • Vietnam war: Huge instances of human rights violations
  • Fight against inequality and racism: This was the era of civil right movement in USA.
  • Poverty in urban ghettos was on rise.
Showing Reasons of Evolution of Radial Approach

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Question 4

Perspectives in Human Geography
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How is Christaller՚s Central place Theory applied today? Explain with the help of recent examples. (30 Marks)

Explanation

Christaller՚S Central Place Theory

Aim is to explain growth of various urban places and the hierarchy observed.

Assumptions

  • Isotropic surface.
  • Uniform utility for both seller and purchases.
  • Assumption of people to be economic and rational while making choice.
  • There is a threshold for every service offered.
  • Similarly there is a huge range for various good.

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Question 5

Perspectives in Human Geography
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Explain how the regional planning theories can justify the development of Smart City Projects. Which is the theory best suited to justify such a development? (20 Marks)

Explanation

Smart City Projects

  • Smart city project aims to develop 100 cities with smart infrastructure like solid waste Management, adequate infrastructure, public transport, e-governance etc.
  • Presently roughly 30 % of India՚s population lie in urban areas and it is expected to double by 2050 AD.

An Urgent Need For

  • Making urban areas more hospitable.
  • Promote growt…

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Question 6

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Appeared in Year: 2016

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Trace the origin and progress of Quantitative Revolution in Geography and bring out its merits and demerits?

Explanation

Quantitative Revolution

  • The application of statistical and mathematical techniques, theorems and proofs to understand geographical systems is known as the Quantitative Revolution in Geography. Geography was facing problems of generalization and theory building for more than two hundred years. After the Second World War, geographers of developed coun…

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Question 7

Perspectives in Human Geography
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Appeared in Year: 2016

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“Areal differentiation forms the core theme in Geography” . Explain.

Explanation

Areal Differentiation

  • The study of areal variation of human and physical phenomena as they relate to other spatially proximate and casually linked phenomena is known as areal differentiation. The term areal differentiation was coined and popularized by Richard Hartshorne in his monumental work ‘Nature of Geography’ in 1939. According to Hartshorne, …

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Question 8

Perspectives in Human Geography
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Appeared in Year: 2016

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Discuss the relevance of ‘Stop and Go Determinism’ in the present day context.

Explanation

Stop and Go Determinism

  • The famous Australian Geographer gave the concept of ‘Stop and Go Determinism’ .
  • This concept is also known as Neo-Determinism. According to this concept, man can do anything towards environment but ultimately environment stops his planning and forces him to think. After thinking man again moves forward and follows the limitat…

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Question 9

Perspectives in Human Geography
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Explain India՚s contribution to geographical thought and the distribution of Puranic Dwipas (30 marks)

Explanation

Geographical Thought and Puranic Dwipas Distribution

  • Indian Geography has a long history. In fact, various geographical concepts have been developing in our country since the dawn of Indian civilization.
  • Chronologically Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, works of Buddhists and Jains and Puranas are the main sources of ancient Indian geographical concepts.

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