Optionals IAS Mains Botany: Questions 369 - 377 of 511

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Question 369

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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What are the recent developments in the use of microbes in industrial products? Why do microbes serve as most ideal organisms in industrial applications?

Explanation

Industrial Production of Antibiotics

  • Antibiotics are the metabolic substances produced by some living organism which injurious to other living beings.
  • Penicillin is first antibiotic extracted by Alexander Fleming from fungi Penicillium notatum.
  • Many other fungi are used to obtain antibiotics like Aspergillus giganteus to make L-sarcin, Claviceps purpu…

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Question 370

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Describe the adaptive responses at the morphological and physiological levels in higher plants to water deficit stress conditions.

Explanation

Adaptive Responses and Water Deficit Stress Conditions

Stress Condition

  • Any change in the environment may disrupt the homeostasis that can be defined as biological stress.
  • Stress in plants can be defined as any external factor that negatively affects the physiology and survival of the plant.

Water Deficit Condition

  • In this situation, the plant water pot…

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Question 371

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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What is Totipotency? Give an experimental evidence to demonstrate.

Explanation

Totipotency

  • Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism.
  • Totipotency is the genetic potential of a plant cell to produce the entire plant.
  • Isolated cells from differentiated tissue are generally non-dividing and quiescent.
  • Totipotency is expressed they undergo dedifferentiation and th…

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Question 372

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Comment on how far Selaginella advances towards seed habit.

Explanation

Seed Habit

  • Seed habit is said when naked Megasporangium got covered by a vascular integument and hence a seed was formed.
  • A seed may be defined as an integumented and indehiscent Megasporangium.
Seed Habit

In Selaginella

  • Selaginella belongs to pteridophyte still show seed habit like structure.
  • Seed habit starts from gymnosperms.
  • So selaginella show advanc…

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Question 373

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Objectives and properties of probability.

Explanation

Probability

  • It is a branch of mathematics which deals with numerical descriptions of how likely an event is to occur or how likely it is that a proposition is true.
  • The probability of ant event should be between 0 to 1.

Objectives of Probability

  • It able to calculate probabilities by counting the outcomes in sample space.
  • Use of counting formula to compu…

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Question 374

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Write the botanical name of the plants, their family, economically important plant parts and uses Nutmeg.

Explanation

Nutmeg

  • Botanical name- Myristica fragrans.
  • Family- Myristicaceae.
  • Economic important of plant part- seeds are mostly used part of the plant. Used for different purposes.
The Plants, Their Family, Economically

Uses

  • Nutmeg is the seed of species of the genus Myristica.
  • It is cultivated for two spices
    • Nutmeg (seed)
    • Mace (seed covering)
  • It is also a source of an…

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Question 375

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Write a short note on chloroplast dimorphism.

Explanation

Chloroplast Dimorphism

  • Chloroplast dimorphism can be seen in plants.
  • have kranz anatomy that prevents plant from photorespiration.
  • In the plants, there are two type of cell mesophyll cell and bundle sheath cell.
Chloroplast Dimorphism
  • In these plants, mesophyll as well as bundle sheath cell shows the presence of chlorophyll.
  • However, there are some di…

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Question 376

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Distinguish between Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

Explanation

Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta

Distinguish between Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta
CharacteristicChlorophytaRhodophyta
PigmentPigments found in this phylum are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, xanthophyll, alpha and beta carotenes.Pigments found in this phylum are chlorophyll a, chorophyll d, and Phycobilin.

Phycobilin is an accessory pigment.

Phycobilins are of two types-

Pycoerythrine

Phycocyanin

They are present in rhodophyace and cyanophyceae respectively.

They work as light harvesting pigments and transfer light absorbed in chlorophyll.

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Question 377

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Explain elaborately the molecular basis of fruit ripening. How can this process be manipulated?

Explanation

Molecular Basis of Fruit Ripening

  • Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process lead by metabolic, enzymatic, and physiological changes.
  • Hence different enzyme, nutrient, pigment, and hormone mainly have role in ripening of fruit.
  • Some hydrolytic enzyme like polygalacturonase, cellulose, pectin methyl esterase increased at the time of fruit ripen…

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