Optionals IAS Mains Botany: Questions 361 - 368 of 511

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Question 361

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

Describe in Detail

Essay▾

Protoplast Fusion: Origin, merits and demerits.

Explanation

Protoplast Fusion

  • Protoplast fusion involves mixing of protoplasts of two different genomes.
  • It can be achieved by either spontaneous or different method.
  • The hybrid made by the Protoplast fusion is called somatic hybrid.

Origin

  • Protoplast introduced in 1880 by Hanstein.
  • First isolation was done by Klercker in 1892 by mechanical method.
  • But in real beginn…

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Question 362

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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Essay▾

Distinguish between simple and cleavage polyembryony with the help of labelled diagrams; compare the embryogeny of pinus and Cycas.

Explanation

Polyembryony

  • The presence of more than one embryo in the seed is called polyembryony.
  • But even in polyembryony only one embryo matures and rest of them degenerate.

Simple Polyembryony

In simple polyembryony many embryos develops as a result of the fertilization of several archegonia.

Cleavage Polyembryony

  • It is most common method of development of more t…

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Question 363

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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Essay▾

Narrate briefly the various methods of gene transfer in plants.

Explanation

Different Methods of Gene Transfer in Plants

Vector Mediated Transfer Method

  • Agrobacterium
  • Virus mediated transfer method
    • Caulimoviruses
    • Gemini viruses
    • RNA viruses
  • Vectors that are used for transfer of the genes in the plants are RNA and DNA based.
  • In vectors based on T-DNA the vector DNA translocate into the nucleus and integrates into the host genome.
  • Vec…

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Question 364

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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Essay▾

Distinguish between lytic and Lysogenic cycles. Explain briefly the steps of multiplication process of T-4 bacteriophage by the lytic cycle.

Explanation

In Phages the multiplication is done by the two alternative methods lytic cycle and lysogenic cycle.

Lytic Cycle

  • Lytic cycle ends with the death of host cell. The death of cell is called lysis.
  • It is seen in T- even bacteriophage.
  • The multiplication process involve four steps

Infection

  • Synthesis of phage component
  • Assembly of new phage particle
  • Liberation …

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Question 365

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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Essay▾

Phytoremediation is not an ultimate solution to all the maladies of air and water. Explain in detail with specific examples.

Explanation

Phytoremediation

Plant to Sequester Phytoremediation
  • The capacity of plants to sequester heavy metal ions by binding them to phytochelatin used to detoxify soils polluted with heavy metals.
  • On such soils plants are grown, which by breeding or genetic engineering have a particularly high capacity for heavy metal uptake by the roots and of phytochelatin…

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Question 366

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

Write in Short

Short Answer▾

Discuss the role of transduction in genetic recombination in bacteria.

Question 367

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Appeared in Year: 2017 (IFS)

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Essay▾

Distinguish between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic.

Explanation

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

  • Prokaryotes are organisms which have prokaryotic type of cells whereas eukaryotes are the organisms which have Eukaryotic type of cells.
  • Prokaryotic are basically one envelope system in comparison to Eukaryotic they are smaller in size.
  • Unlike Eukaryotic they lack double membrane cell organelle e. g. endoplasmic reticulum mi…

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Question 368

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Appeared in Year: 2018 (IFS)

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Essay▾

What is Helobial type of endosperm? Describe the process of its Development.

Explanation

Endosperm

Endosperm is tissue produced by most of the flowering plants inside the seeds following fertilization.

Helobial Endosperm

  • Helobial endosperm in this type of endosperm development after triple fusion the primary endosperm nucleus invariably migrates to the chalazal end of the embryo sac.
  • The wall formation after the first division of the prima…

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