Optionals IAS Mains Botany: Questions 176 - 183 of 511

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Question 176

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Appeared in Year: 2014 (IFS)

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Describe bottom up regulation of plant respiration. (Paper 2)

Explanation

Bottom up Regulation of Plant Respiration

  • The breakdown of the C-C bonds of complex compounds thorough oxidation within the cells, leading to release of considerable amount of energy is called respiration. The compounds that are oxidised during this process are known as respiration substance.
  • During oxidation within a cell, all the energy contained i…

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Question 177

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Appeared in Year: 2014 (IFS)

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With U՚s triangle explains the role of amphiploides in evolution of crop plants. (Paper 2)

Explanation

Role of Amphiploides in Evolution of Crop Plants

  • An allopolyploid resulting due to chromosome doubling in a sterile hybrid derived from hybridization between two unrelated diploid species is also called as “amphidiploid” . And if the paternal species are polyploids the derivation will be called as “amphipolypliod” .
  • Allopolyploidy is the product of i…

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Question 178

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Appeared in Year: 2015 (IFS)

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Primitive characters of Magnoliaceae (Paper 2)

Explanation

Primitive Characters of Magnoliaceae

  • It is a primitive family of flowering plants.
  • Earliest known flowering plant is 13o million years ago.
  • Almost all primitive flowering plant belong to the Magnoliaceae family.

Primitive Characteristics

  • They have large flowers with numerous petals and sepals. They are called tepals because they are similar in size and …

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Question 179

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Appeared in Year: 2015 (IFS)

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Compare the morphological character of male and female strobili in Gnetum. (Paper 2)

Explanation

Morphological Character of Male and Female Strobili in Gnetum

Male Strobili of Gnetum

  • The male strobili are borne in the axils of leaves.
  • The strobili may be branched or unbranched.
  • Each male strobilus has a long stout axis divided into nodes and inter-nodes.
  • The axis bear 10 - 15 successive pairs of sterile and connote bracts which fuse in pairs at eac…

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Question 180

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Appeared in Year: 2014 (IFS)

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Basic chromosome number may be different from haploid number. (Paper 2)

Explanation

Basic Chromosome

Basic chromosome refers to the number of chromosome found in a single complete set of chromosome.

Haploid Number

Whereas the total number of chromosome found in a gamete is called haploid number.

  • Human are diploid organisms, having two set of 23 chromosome. For diploid organism the basic chromosome number and haploid number is equal. F…

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Question 181

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Appeared in Year: 2015 (IFS)

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Briefly discuss the technique for raising haploids from microspores. (Paper 2)

Explanation

Raising Haploids from Microscopes

Haploids can be generated from microspores through in vitro

  • Haploid plants can be culture from microspore can be produced through in vitro culture of male gametophytic cells that is microspore or immature pollen.
  • The microspores are then squeezed out of the anthers by pressing them against the side of beaker with a gl…

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Question 182

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Appeared in Year: 2015 (IFS)

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How the fungal toxin classified according to their source of origin? (Paper 2)

Explanation

Fungal Toxins

  • Fungal toxins are produced by fungi and are broadly classified into three groups according to their origin of source.
  • These are mainly responsible for food poisoning.
  • It can be produced in any plant product but cereals and oil seeds crops.

Four Types of Fungal Toxins Cause Human Disease

Aflatoxins

  • It is most potent carcinogens are produced …

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Question 183

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Appeared in Year: 2014 (IFS)

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Explain various physiological processes that help in fruit ripening. How this knowledge help to overcome problems likely to be faced because of climate change? (Paper 2)

Explanation

Physiological Processes in Fruit Ripening

  • Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process lead by metabolic, enzymatic and physiological changes.
  • And hence different enzyme, nutrient, pigment and hormone mainly have role in ripening of fruit.
  • Some hydrolytic enzyme like polygalacturonase, cellulose, pectin methyl esterase increased at the time of f…

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