Optionals IAS Mains Botany: Questions 105 - 112 of 511

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Question 105

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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Differentiate between the following: Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiate ferns (paper 1, Section A)

Explanation

Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiate Ferns

Based on development the sporangia have been classified by Goebel (1881) into two groups; Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiate.

Table Showing the Differences between Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiate
EusporangiateLeptosporangiate
In eusporangiate, large sporangium develops from many initial cells and produces many spores.In leptosporangiate, small sporangium develops from single initial cell and produces small definite number of spores.

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Question 106

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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One Liner▾

Write the botanical name, family and part used of each of the following: Eggplant (Paper 1, Section B)

Question 107

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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Comment critically on the following: Advanced features of Asteraceae (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Advanced Features of Asteraceae

  • Herbaceous nature of the majority taxa.
  • Aggregation of flowers into heads or capitula with attractive ligulate florets and dense tubular disc florets.
  • The capitula are surrounded by conspicuous involucral bracts.
  • The construction of capitula enables a single visit of insect can help in pollinating several florets, there …

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Question 108

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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Write Short Notes on: Methods of protoplast fusion (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Methods of Protoplast Fusion

  • Protoplast fusion is the joining of two plant cells together to form one cell with multiple nuclei.
  • There are two methods of Protoplast fusion; Spontaneous fusion and induced fusion.
Image Showing Protoplast Fusion Methods

Spontaneous Fusion

  • Spontaneous fusion means protoplasts isolated fuse spontaneously.
  • Spontaneous fusion …

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Question 109

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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Comment on: Double fertilization and triple fertilization in Angiosperms (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Double and Triple Fertilization in Angiosperms

  • The process of double fertilization occurs in angiosperms (flowering plants) .
  • In the process of double fertilization, out of the two sperm nucleus, one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form an embryo in process called syngamy and another male sperm nucleus fuses with polar nuclei to form endo…

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Question 110

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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Make a comparison of the following: Inflorescence of Apiaceae and Euphorbiaceae (Paper 1, Section B)

Explanation

Inflorescence of Apiaceae and Euphorbiaceae

Table Showing the Inflorescence of Apiaceae Versus Inflorescence of Euphorbiaceae
Inflorescence of ApiaceaeInflorescence of Euphorbiaceae
Simple or compound umbel type of inflorescence is found in Apiaceae family.Cyathium type of inflorescence is found in Euphorbiaceae family.
Umbel is a type of racemose inflorescence whose main axis is shortened and at the tip bears a whorl of bracts.Cyathium inflorescence is highly reduced. It has a cup shaped receptacle and often provided with nectar secreting glands.

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Question 111

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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Discuss briefly the following: Causal organisms, symptoms and control of wheat rusts in India (Paper 1, Section A)

Explanation

Types of Wheat Rusts

Three types of wheat rusts are known and all of them frequently occur in India.

  1. Black or stem rust
  2. Orange – Brown rust
  3. Yellow stripe rust

Black or Stem Rust

Causal organism: Puccinia graminis tritici

Symptoms

  • Symptoms are produced on almost all aerial parts of the wheat plant but are most common on stem, leaf sheaths and upper and lowe…

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Question 112

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Appeared in Year: 2013 (IFS)

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Discuss briefly the following: Dissemination of pathogens by insects (Paper 1, Section A)

Explanation

Dissemination of Pathogens by Insects

  • Since the discovery by Waite that bees and wasps can transmit bacteria causing fire blight of apple and pear, Erwinia amylovora, much information has been accumulated on the role of insects and other small animals in the dissemination of plant-pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi.
  • Many small animals help in the…

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