Optionals IAS Mains Anthropology: Questions 135 - 144 of 144

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Question 135

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Discuss the issues related to universality of marriage definitions, citing examples wherever necessary.

Explanation

Universality of Marriage Definitions

All though anthropologists have been trying for so many years to provide any universal definition of the marriage yet have not been able to do so.

Earlier Definitions

Westermarck

  • Marriage is a relation of one or more men and women.
  • These are recognized by the customs and laws.
  • Involves certain rights and duties both i

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Question 136

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Write short notes on Levirate and Sororate.

Explanation

Levirate

  • In this type of marriage the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother’s widow.
  • Levirate is a Latin word which means “husband’s brother”.
  • This type of marriage has been known in many societies around the world.
  • This is associated with patrilineal descent and patrilocal residence.
  • These often coincides with polygyny.
  • It is commonl

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Question 137

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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Essay▾

Why has the concept of Cultural Relativism been so dear to anthropologists? 250 words

Explanation

Cultural Relativism and Anthropologists

  • All beliefs, customs, and ethics are relative to the individual.
  • Method where different cultures are analyzed objectively.
  • What is right and what is wrong that becomes culture specific.
  • As there exist no universal standard of morality:
    • No society can judge the other society’s customs and rituals.
  • It is very much po

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Question 138

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Discuss the anthropological school of Classical Evolutionism. Add a note on its contributions to the general discipline of anthropology.

Explanation

Anthropological School of Classical Evolutionism

  • This School explains about the culture and it evolution.
  • It also tried to establish a Unilinear Pattern of human cultural evolution.
  • Development of life took place from simple to complex as explained by Darwin.
  • Culture too developed from simple form to modern complex one.
Anthropological school of Classical Evolutionism

Anthropological School of Classical Evolutionism

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Question 139

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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Essay▾

Write short notes on Geological Time Scale.

Explanation

Geological Time Scale

  • It is a system of chronological dating or simply can be called as the “calendar” for events in Earth history.
  • Has been used by the by Palaeontologists, Geologists and other earth scientists for describing the timing and relationship between the events.
  • These events are those which have had occurred throughout in the history of th

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Question 140

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Appeared in Year: 2013

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Essay▾

How do you situate Anthropology in Social Sciences? (150 words)

Explanation

Anthropology in Social Sciences

  • Anthropology is the scientific study of humans, their behaviour including the societies in the past and present.
  • Search for the existence.
  • Evolution of humans.
  • Also studies about:
    • Culture
    • Behaviour
    • Language
    • All other cultural and social activities

Cultural Anthropology

  • The way society interacts with each other.
  • To live as a fam

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Question 141

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List out the ways of acquiring mates in tribal societies.

Explanation

Acquiring Mates

  • A complex relationship between the suitor and the family is being reflected the manner in which mates have been acquired in tribal societies.
  • Suitor is a man who pursues a relationship with a particular woman, with a view to marriage.
  • This types of marriages demonstrate complex inter-tribal agreements and customs.

Categorization of Acqu

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Question 142

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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Define “culture area”. How did it help the American diffusionist to understand diffusion of culture? 250 words

Explanation

Culture Area and Understanding Diffusion of Culture

  • Cultural traits get discovered through Cultural diffusion.
  • Discovered at one place and spread directly or indirectly to other places.

American School of Diffusionism

  • Franz Boas was the founder of American School of Diffusionism.
  • His devout followers were Clark Wissler and Alfred Kroeber.
  • Historical in i

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Question 143

British, German and American
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Essay▾

Describe the following in 200 words:

Write short notes on Weberian Triumvarate.

Explanation

Weberian Triumvarate

Emile Durkheim (A French Sociologist)

  • A society is held together by social relationships like rituals, public ceremonies and division of labour.
  • Society shapes humans the way humans cooperate towards the creation of a society.
  • Conflicts are abnormal and social problems are glitch.

Max Weber (A German Sociologist)

  • Culture and economic

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Question 144

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Essay▾

Discuss the various relative and absolute dating techniques used in various branches of Anthropology.

Explanation

Dating or Chronological Dating

  • It is the process of attributing to an object including an event in the past.
  • In the previously established chronology such objects or events could be located.
  • Using geological principles and chemical analysis chronological sequence of sites and events are worked out.

Types of Dating Techniques Existing

Types of Dating Techniques Existing

Types of Dating Techniques Existing

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