Optionals IAS Mains Anthropology: Questions 95 - 103 of 144

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Question 95

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Essay▾

Describe broadly the distribution and general characteristics of Lower Paleolithic Cultures.

Explanation

Lower Paleolithic

  • The earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic.
  • Also known as the Early Stone Age.
  • This period is believed to have lasted from between about 2.7 million years ago to 200,000 years ago.
  • Hunting and food gathering.
  • The people knew the use of fire.
  • Except the alluvial tracts and Kerala region, Lower Palaeolithic culture was distributed throug…

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Question 96

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Appeared in Year: 2013

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Write short note on: Totemism

Explanation

Totemism

  • A relation between people and nature.
  • Considered a primitive religion by many European thinkers in the 1800s.
  • The term totem:
    • Comes from an Ojibwe word meaning “a relative of mine” .
  • To interact with a given kin group or an individual.
    • Serving as an emblem or symbol.
  • Characterizes a cluster of traits in the religion.
  • Also includes social organizat…

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Question 97

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Discuss the general postulates, methodology and contributions of Historical Particularism in anthropology.

Explanation

Historical Particularism

  • Each society has its own historical development that needs to be understood based on its own specific cultural and environmental context.
  • Historical particularism was developed in the early twentieth century by Franz Boas and his students.
Historical Particularism

Historicism

  • An anthropological school of thoughts.
  • It believed bel…

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Question 98

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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State the theories regarding the origin of spoken languages both from biological and cultural view. 350 words

Explanation

Origin of Spoken Languages

  • Primary means of communication.
  • Includes both spoken and written.
  • Spoken languages are produced by articulate sounds.
  • Learned through Enculturation.
  • Humans get benefitted due to communication.
  • A language produced with the vocal tract is known as an oral language or the vocal language.
  • Sign language can be produced using hands an…

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Question 99

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Write short notes on Incest Taboo.

Explanation

Incest Taboo

  • When certain members of the same family get prohibited (sexual relations) by certain rules and norms.
  • This involves individuals related by blood.

Claude Levi-Strauss (Anthropologist)

  • Argued against the prohibition incest taboo in human societies.
    • A part of incest should be prohibited.
    • Exogamy should be promoted to strengthen social bonds.
    • End…

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Question 100

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Describe the following in 200 words.

Cultural Processes.

Explanation

Cultural Process

  • All those procedures using which people can transform the world into a world of their own.
  • This includes:
    • Actions promoting human survival.
    • Actions promoting human adjustment (b/w people and environment) .
    • Actions that bring changes to life.

Specific Changes

  • Technological Skills
  • Social Organization
  • Economic or Political life

Types of Cultura…

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Question 101

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Describe the following in 200 words: “A truly unstratified society has never been realized in the history of mankind” . Explain.

Explanation

Unstratified Society

  • There exist inequality in almost all human societies.
  • There is hardly any society anywhere where people are equal in all aspects and respects.
  • Be it is power or prestige there has been an unequal distribution of these two between individuals and groups.
  • The degree of inequalities and nature of stratification may differ in the socie…

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Question 102

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Appeared in Year: 2014

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‘Man can stand erect while anthropoid apes cannot’ . Discuss the anatomical changes that occurred in Man due to erect posture. (250 Words)

Explanation

Standing Erect

  • Humans have this ability to modify the environment and surrounding they are living in.
  • Erect posture requires adjustment and correction.
  • Most important evolutionary advantage:
    • Ability to stand
    • Ability to walk
  • The major changes in the skeleton occurred due to the change in the locomotion.
  • Reduction in length of forelimb in comparison to hind…

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Question 103

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Appeared in Year: 2015

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Essay▾

Describe the following in 200 words.

Nature of Culture

Explanation

Culture

  • This is defined as the amalgamation of knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in a group.
  • It may also be defined as the complex whole of collective human beliefs.
    • A structured stage of civilization.
    • This civilization can be specific to a nation or time period.
Nature of Culture

Importance of Culture

  • It…

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