Optionals IAS Mains Anthropology: Questions 1 - 10 of 144

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Question 1

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Discuss Sheldon՚s somatotyping

Explanation

Sheldon՚S Somatotyping

  • Somatotyping is a useful method to determine human physique, which is the configuration of entire body. In the 1940s an American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon, in his works ″ The Varieties of Human Physique (1940) and ″ The Varieties of Temperament (1942) ″ outlined three body types and associated temperament. He used a…

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Question 2

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Discuss the contribution of Bronislaw Malinowski in developing the functional school in social Anthropology

Explanation

Functional School in Social Anthropology and Bronislaw Malinowski՚S Contribution

  • In the late 19th and early 20th century, evolutionism emerged to elaborate upon the origin and evolution of culture, later the diffusion school developed to reject the psychic unity of mankind and parallel invention, the concepts given by evolution school and devised un…

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Question 3

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Writes a brief note on the Neolithic culture of India.

Explanation

Neolithic Culture of India

  • The term Neolithic, derived from two Latin words “neo” meaning new and lithic meaning stone, thus also called as the new Stone Age. The Holocene epoch marked significant changes in climate and demography due to which there evolved settled and sedentary life with the advent of agriculture and domestication of animals. Aroun…

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Question 4

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Describe the importance of fieldwork tradition in socio-cultural anthropology.

Explanation

Fieldwork Tradition and Socio-Cultural Anthropology

  • When people take socio-cultural anthropology as their subject, they always focus on holistic study of small society or small part of big social structure in order to make it as all-inclusive as possible. Thus, it is suggested to pick up particular area with particular sets of topics and to venture …

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Question 5

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Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each: Cultural relativism and subsequent violation of human rights

Explanation

Cultural Relativism

  • Cultural relativism can be defined as unbiased view towards different cultures- no culture is better than the other. It was started as oppose to the idea of ethnocentrism which highlights the egoistic attitude towards different cultures of the world.
  • Cultural relativism has provided an umbrella to acceptance, cultural plurality an…

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Question 6

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Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each: Importance of chronology in prehistory:

Explanation

Importance of Chronology in Prehistory

  • Human race has gone through various biological and cultural evolution since the dawn of quaternary period and a little before that. Prehistory is the period when there was no written evidence of the human endeavours. To overcome this C. J. Thompson suggested three age system-Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age.
  • Usin…

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Question 7

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each:

Segmentary lineage and territoriality

Explanation

Segmentary Lineage and Territoriality

  • Lineage can be defined as a unilateral decent drawn from either fathers “or mothers” side (matrilineal or patrilineal) . Such lineage, when the size is enormous, gets subdivided into smaller branches known as segmentary lineage.
  • Segmentary lineage systems are decentralised and egalitarian form of social organisat…

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Question 8

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Define fecundity and explain major factors affecting fecundity in Indian populations.

Explanation

Fecundity and the Factors Affecting

  • Fecundity in demographical anthropology means the potential (physiological capacity) of reproduction in an organism. Estimates of the fecundity can be drawn from the fertility of the population.
  • In man, fecundity starts at puberty and continues throughout life while in the case of women it starts with the first per…

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Question 9

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Write notes on the following in about 150 words each:

Difference between science and magic

Explanation

Difference between Science and Magic

  • According to J. Frazer, society goes through phases of Magic religion science.
  • Although all of these are a constant part of many communities. Various rituals, symbols, gestures are used in magic. It is always viewed with suspicion in communities as it practised with isolation and secrecy.
  • Magic is considered as a…

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Question 10

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Appeared in Year: 2018

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What do you understand by the National Character study? Illustrate the concept.

Explanation

National Character Study Concept

  • The national character study is an example of long-distance anthropological analyses of a particular sector of a specific community.
  • They were major tools of strategic planning in the period of World War 2 (in the 1940s) and also in the early period of the cold war (in the 60s and 70s) . In this era, some social anthr…

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