Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers [IAS (Admin.) IAS Mains GS Paper 4 (Ethics)]: Questions 4 - 9 of 12

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Question 4

Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers
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Appeared in Year: 2018

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Essay▾

“Falsehood takes the place of truth when it results in unblemished common good.” – Thirukkural. (150 words) .

Explanation

  • In general, Falsehood refers to untrue statements which could be a deliberate lie or an inaccuracy. This often gives rise to the practice of lying that ultimately leads to a lack of conformity to truth or fact and a tacit approval of inaccuracy.
    • The question refers to the situations where untruth can be better than truth.
    • Truth might bring grief and …

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Question 5

Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers
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Why did Gandhiji say poverty is the worst form of violence? Do you agree? Justify. (150 Words)

Explanation

Poverty can be defined as deprivation of basic amenities to person which disables him/her from access to food, drinking water, health, safety, shelter, clothing, and other basic amenities. So, poverty is a multidimensional issue which adversely affects the person like violence would. When violence takes place, the person is physically hurt or kille…

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Question 6

Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers
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“All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason.” Comment on Kant՚s statement. (150 Words)

Explanation

According to Immanuel Kant his idea of senses both external and internal say mind was to understand the world around due to which knowledge arises. So, this knowledge shapes our mental capability where reason is given the primary importance. Kant believed moral obligation derived from our free, rational nature. Kant believed that freedom came from …

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Question 7

Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers
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“The first principal of non-violent action is that of non-cooperation with everything humiliating.” What do you understand by Gandhiji՚s statement? Discuss its relevance today. (150 Words)

Explanation

With Gandhi, the notion of nonviolence attained a special status. He not only theorized on it, he adopted nonviolence as a philosophy and an ideal way of life. He made us understand that the philosophy of nonviolence is not a weapon of the weak; it is a weapon, which can be tried by all.

  • The statement highlights that when an act which is humiliating…

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Question 8

Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers
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“Great ambition is the passion of a great character. Those endowed with it may perform very good or very bad acts. All depends on the principles which direct them.” – Napoleon Bonaparte. Stating examples mention the rulers

(i) Who have harmed society and country?

(ii) Who worked for the development of society and country? (150 Words)

Explanation

  • Ambition is defined as a desire and determination to achieve success.
  • An ambitious person is always motivated to do his best. Ambition guides him to be enthusiastic, confident, explorers of new ideas and innovations etc.
  • Having big dreams and putting efforts to realize them requires great deal of courage and belief in yourself, something which only p…

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Question 9

Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers
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What do you understand by distributive justice? What does utilitarianism have to say about distributive justice? (150 Words)

Explanation

Introduction

Distributive justice concerns the nature of a socially just allocation of goods in a society. A society in which incidental inequalities in outcome do not arise would be considered a society guided by the principles of distributive justice. The concept includes the available quantities of goods, the process by which goods are to be dist…

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