IAS (Admin.) IAS Mains GS Paper 3 (Science-Tech, Economy, Environment, & Disaster Management) Environmental Issues-Environmental Pollution and Degradation Study Material (Page 8 of 15)

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Pollution: Soil and Land Pollution

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Soil and Land Pollution

Degradation and misuse of land resources causes land pollution. Land pollution that causes deterioration of fertile soil is called soil pollution. Soil pollution occurs due to xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alterations in natural soil environment.

Causes of Land Pollution

Land pollution is caused by:

  • Unhealthy soil management methods, for example,
    • Improper and e…

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Pollution: Water Pollution

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Water Pollution

Any pollutant, which degrades quality of water, leads to water pollution. It refers to pollution of water in liquid forms like oceans, lakes, rivers, underground water, and bays.

Causes of Water Pollution

Toxic substances (chemical) and pathogenic germs (biological) released into water, consume oxygen and change chemical composition of water rendering it unfit for human and animal consumption. These substances interfere with normal aquatic ecosystems. Following are some sources of water pollution

Natural Sources: These include

  • Discharge from earthquakes and volcanoes
  • Pollutants carried by floods
  • Pollutants added due to landslides
  • Decay of anima…

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