Science and Technology-Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology [IAS (Admin.) IAS Mains GS Paper 3 (Science-Tech, Economy, Environment, & Disaster Management)]: Questions 20 - 22 of 22

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Question 20

Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology
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Essay▾

The recent economic survey while admitting scientific and technological innovations underpin economic prosperity, carries an entire chapter on transforming science and technology in India. Discuss its mains observations and recommendations regarding boosting S&T research in India. (250 Words)

Explanation

Background:

Science, technology, and innovation have instrumental and intrinsic value for society. They are key drivers of economic performance and social well-being.

Observations by Economic Survey 2018:

  • India under-spends on research and development (R&D) , even relative to its level of development.
  • India՚s R&D spending is also mostly carried out by …

… (603 more words) …

Question 21

Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology
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Essay▾

What are Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (LAWS) ? Should LAWS be banned? Examine. (250 Words)

Explanation

Lethal Autonomous Weapons System:

  • The use of AI in military applications, specifically those termed as Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (LAWS) .
  • LAWS are weapon systems that once activated, can select and engage targets without further human intervention.

Why LAWS Should Be Banned:

  • The prospects of this military application has given rise to the Campai…

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Question 22

Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology
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Essay▾

What do you understand by patent exclusivity and secondary patents? Examine the innovations in Indian patent law that have made medicines affordable and the ways through which big pharma companies try to subvert these laws. (250 Words)

Explanation

Patent Exclusivity:

  • Patents offer their owners market exclusivity for a limited period of time. For medicines, this exclusivity should last as long as the primary patent which relates to the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of the medicine is in effect, typically 20 years.
  • The end of patent exclusivity is referred to as a patent cliff because d…

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