IAS (Admin.) IAS Mains GS Paper 2 (Governance, Polity, Social Justice, & IR) Constitution-Amendments Study Material (Page 11 of 30)

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Constitutional Provisions, under Article 16 (4) Applies Only if Two Conditions Are Satisfied, Who Are Socially and Educationally Backward Classes, What is the Limit of Reservation

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Constitutional Provisions

Under Article 15 (4) , two things are to be determined:

  • Who are socially and educationally backward classes?
  • What is the limit of reservation?

Under Article 16 (4) Applies Only if Two Conditions Are Satisfied

  • The class of citizens is backward; and
  • The said class is not adequately represented in the services of the State

Who Are Socially and Educationally Backward Classes?

(i) Backward Classes are not defined in the Constitution.

(ii) Article 340, however, empowers the Pre…

… (191 more words) …

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Emergency Provisions, PART XVII Art 352 to 360, Position of the Court, the 44th Amendment, 1978, Inserted a New Clause

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Emergency Provisions

PART XVII Art 352 to 360

National Emergency

Article 352 categorically mentions that the national emergency can be imposed on three grounds:

1. war,

2. external aggression, and

3. armed rebellion.

  • For this President can do it only when he has consent of the Cabinet (the council consisting of the Prime Minister and other ministers of cabinet rank appointed under Article 75) in writing.
  • Every Proclamation issued under this Article shall be laid before each House of Parliament and shall, except where it is a Proclamation revoking a p…

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